The Mongol Warriors were fierce and well schooled in the art of war. From psychological attitude and organised formations to a variety of weaponry and efficiently produced armour. The Mongols were a force to be reckoned with. Skilled archers and horse riders, the Mongolian warriors went up against better armoured opponents and used their battle wiles and tactics to give them a fight advantage. The Mongols were rightly feared opponents in battle. The Mongol learned a lot of their battle skills from their ancestors, and every Mongol, warrior or not was skilled in the use of the bow and arrow, often with deadly accuracy. The training was hard and consistent for them but was not overly strict or disciplined in its routine. Their armour for the time was not as advanced as some, but their production of steel was good and workshops were used to produce the weaponry and armour that the Mongol used in battle. ... See MoreSee Less
Kazakh warrior wearing a helmet with mail aventail and mail hauberk, he is holding an axe, a matchlock with bipod and huge composite bow are in the backround. The Kazakh Khanate was a Turkic Kazakh state, the successor of the Golden Horde, existing from 1456–1847, located roughly on the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. At its height the khanate ruled from eastern Cumania (modern-day West Kazakhstan) to most of Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan and the Syr Darya river. ... See MoreSee Less
The ‘Stone of Chinggis khaan’ The so-called ‘Stone of Chinggis’ is the inscribed stele celebrating the victory of Chinggis khaan's nephew Yesunge (c. 1190–c. 1270) in an archery contest that Chinggis held at a place near the Imil and (Black) Irtysh rivers in present-day northern Xinjiang on his return journey to Mongolia after the great campaign against Khwarezm (1218–24).There he set up his ordo again in the summer of 1224, engaging in the usual activities of hunting, archery contests, etc., and holding a great feast. In the archery contest, Prince Yesunge, the second son of Chinggis’ younger brother Jochi Khasar (1164–c. 1213) — himself a great archer — shot an arrow to the distance of 335 aldas or fathoms equivalent to 536 metres. The text, roughly carved on the two-metre high granite stone now at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg reads: When Chinggis Khaan, having subdued the Sartuul(Central Asian Muslim) people, set up camp, and the noblemen of the entire Mongol nation gathered at Bukha Sochihai,at the long-distance shooting Yesunge shot an arrow to the distance of 335 fathoms.(Mongolic) ... See MoreSee Less
According to Jack Weatherford and his amazing book Chinggis khaan and the Making of the Modern World, the word “Hurray!” comes from the Mongol “Hurree!” which was more or less their version of “Amen!” ... See MoreSee Less
Khagan and khan is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).The female equivalent is Khatun
The Rouran Khaganate (330–555) was the first people to use the titles Khagan and Khan for their emperors, replacing the Chanyu of the Xiongnu. The Rouran are assumed to be proto-Mongols ... See MoreSee Less
According to Mongol legend, two warriors named Kiyan (Khiyad,clan of Genghis khan) and Negus (Nokhos, dog or wolf in mongolian) were defeated in battle and forced to seek shelter in an enclosed valley called Ergune khun ("steep cliffs"). After several generations the descendants of these heroes became too numerous for the valley to support, but no one remembered the way out. A blacksmith came up with a solution—they would create their own way out by melting an exposed iron vein that existed in one of the encircling mountains. Building a massive fire and stoking it with 70 large bellows, the trapped clan did just that and succeeded in creating a passage to the outside world. Once free, the people of Kiyan and Negus went on to create the Mongols.It is a common epic in Mongol mythologies ... See MoreSee Less
Khuraldai was a political and military council of ancient Mongol chiefs and khans . The root of the word is "Kur/Khur" (assemble/discuss) and that helps form "Kurul/Khural" meaning political "meeting" or "assembly" in Mongolian . Khurulday, Khuraldai, or khuraldaan means "a gathering", or more literally, "intergatheration". This root is the same in Mongolian languages word khurim/khurum, which means "feast" and "wedding" and originally referred to large festive gatherings on the steppe, but is used mainly in the sense of wedding in modern times.
All Great Khans of the Mongol Empire, for example Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan, were formally elected in a Khuraldai; khans of subordinate Mongol states, such as the Golden Horde, were elected by a similar regional Khuraldai ... See MoreSee Less
The Battle of Tumu Fortress #TumuCrisis one of #Legendary battles at world Military history
Date:September 1,1449 Location: Huailai County Result:The Mongols victory Strength:20,000(The Mongols) vs 500,000(The Chinese) Commanders and leaders: Esen Tayisi of Oirats/Mongol/,Taysung Khaan/Mongol/, Zhengtong Emperor/China/,Wang Zhen/China/ Casualties and losses:200,000+
The Battle of Tumu Fortress was frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty leading to the capture of Zhengtong Emperor of China on September 8 1449 by an utterly wrong deployment.
In August Esen Tayisi of the Oirat Mongols attacked the Chinese frontier with several thousand cavalry at Datong castle (today Datong County, Shanxi Province), located north and without protection of the Great Wall of China. Aided by Jurchen and diversionary attacks, the Mongols annihilated the Chinese stationary forces.
Zhengtong Emperor favoured a eunuch Wang Zhen, who suggested that the emperor lead an ambitious expedition of five hundred thousand troops to repel the Mongols and boost morale. After Esen faked a complete withdrawal back to the Mongolian steppes the emperor and Wang Zhen ran right into an ambush by chasing the Mongolian to the west and arrived at Datong.
In the night of September 3 , Esen wiped out all defenses and laid siege to the Datong castle. The Chinese army managed to break the siege and were chased as they retreated to the Great Wall.
Struck by a thunderstorm and suffering a tremendous loss of morale, the Chinese army was caught on the north side of a barrack, the Tumu Fortress, in the morning of September 8 . Esen laid siege and overwhelmed its defenses in the late afternoon despite a final charge led by Wang Zhen two hours before. The emperor was captured and most of his accompanying bureaucrats, including Wang Zhen, were killed ... See MoreSee Less
Bogdkhan Uul, just south of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, is the oldest national park in the world. That’s right — it predates Yellowstone by over 100 years. Established by the Mongolian government in 1778 ... See MoreSee Less
Traction Trebuchet the trebuchet is a variation of the catapult. To fire the trebuchet, warriors would grab the rope attached to the arm and pull the line backward, propelling the lever forward to heave a projectile at the enemy. The attachment of the projectile to a flexible sling at the end of the lever arm increased the throwing force.
The Mongols adopted this technology from the Chinese and used it to attack walled cities. Such weapons played a significant role in Mongol attacks on Korea in the 13th century. ... See MoreSee Less
Acts of war fuel change—changes in foreign and domestic relations, changes in politics, and most often changes in national boundaries. The conquests of Genghis Khan in the 12th and 13th centuries C.E. absorbed such boundary lines into the Mongol Empire, extending his rule from the steppes of Mongolia to the eastern shores of the Black Sea. His reign over such a vast expanse of land and large collection of people was due to his strict military leadership, paired with a powerful army to carry out his will. At the head of his army was a handful of generals who answered to him directly, and obediently followed his orders. These men played a major part in many of the Khan’s conquests, but most importantly in conquering the Khwarezmian Empire. The Khan’s victory in Khwarezm, which one of the largest kingdoms to fall during Mongolian westward expansion, created stability that would keep the Silk Road alive throughout Mongol rule and allow the empire to become the last great patron of Silk Road trade. By exploring first the offense that led to the war, understanding the trade atmosphere before Mongol invasion, then evaluating the state of restored trade, and finally tracking the decline of Silk Road trade after Mongol rule, we are led into an ongoing debate concentrated on the long-term impact of Mongol rule on the Silk Road. On the one hand, there is the wasteland left in the path of the Mongol army. On the other hand, there is the economic stability of a unified nation that allowed locals to manage their own economies.While the Mongol army undoubtedly wrought destruction to resistors, the Khan and his generals worked quickly to restore, and gradually increase, economic stability that would keep the Silk Road alive--thus making the Khan's empire the last great patron of Silk Road trade.
Warring with the West
The Khan initially had no interest in conquering the neighbouring, strange land in the west known as the Khwarezm Empire—he was only seeking a trade agreement that would protect his people traveling between the two nations, and reopen trade routes closed for nearly three centuries. With the lure of artisans and merchants that carried prestigious goods,—most of which were from agrarian societies—the Khan also sought to foster trade that would be mutually beneficial to both empires. By establishing this agreement, the Khan could restore the connection between the Central Asia and China, which was cut off after the fall of the Tang Empire. Skeptical of the newly forged power from the east who had conquered his Kara-Khitain neighbors, Shah Mohammed II of Khwarezm accepted this trade agreement. With a solid foundation of trade lain from Inner Mongolia into Central Asia, the Silk Road was traveled at a frequency not seen since the peak of the Tang Empire.
Two years after the agreement had been signed, the Shah received news from a governor of Utrar, a city that stood in modern Khiva, that there were Mongolian spies among the Mohammedan merchants trading within the city. The Shah ordered them to be put to death, breaking the agreement. The governor (reportedly the Shah’s uncle) did so, and confiscated camels, silk, and other valuable goods in the caravan. Only one member of the Mongolian party managed to escape the massacre by fleeing to the nearest Mongolian post—then being sent directly to the Khan. The Khan, finding it hard to believe that the Shah ordered the murders, sent an ambassador to Samarkand to speak with the Shah and demand he turn over the corrupt governor. The Shah then beheaded the ambassador, and refused to turn over the governor—disrespecting the authority of the Khan. This was a blatant act of war, which led to the first invasion of Central Asia under Mongol rule: an act of revenge, that would kick start the crumbling of an already uneasy relationship. Ultimately, this invasion had a major effect on the traffic of the Silk Road because of a temporary halt in trade between the east and the west, which would set the stage for Mongol rule across Central Asia that would support the last era of a flourishing Silk Road.
With the trade agreement shattered, there were no goods flowing between the west and the east: only soldiers. The Khan rallied his forces in order to seek revenge, “His arrow messengers were dispatched in all directions to summon half of the continent, reaching from the Altai Mountains to the Yellow Sea, for a campaign of vengeance.”The Great Khan called on his nation of soldiers to confront the Shah, who had chosen war over commerce. There were six leaders of these leagues of soldiers: Genghis Khan himself, the great Subutai, the khan’s sons, Ogedei and Chagatai, and generals, Jebe and Jochi. Subutai conceived the plan of attack, dividing the army of some 200,000 men into four corps of cavalry. The first was division led by Genghis and Subutai, the second by Ogedei and Chagatai, who would both descend from the north, and the third and fourth led from the south by Jebe and Jochi. Their mission was clear: kill the governor who had committed the crime, and make the Shah pay for his transgressions with his crown and empire. The Mongol troops flooded the Silk Road, their primary point of access to the west, causing chaos that caused momentary destabilization but later opened the entirety of the Kwarezm Empire to trade with the Far East.
The skill and determination of the Mongol generals commanding the Khan’s army resolved the war with a massive victory within only a few years. One by one, the Khwarezmian cities fell at the hands of the Mongols. First to fall was the city of Otrar, where the governor had massacred the Mongol caravan. After being taken alive, the governor met a painful demise; silver was poured in his eyes and ears until he perished. Next to fall were the cities of Kojend and Jend, major cities in the east. Hearing of the fall of Jend, Shah Muhammed sent 50,000 troops from Samarkand to meet Jebe and his cavalry before they could reach Transoxianan ground. Jebe and his troops overtook their enemies and pressed onward toward the Shah’s command post in the east: Samarkand. Transoxiana, Samarkand, the plain of Nasaf, Amu Darya, and the lands between them became subject to Mongol rule as they searched for the Shah. The tireless militant power of the Mongol army led the Shah to be abandoned by his people, ultimately leading to the defeat of the Kwarizmian state. The Shah died on January 10, 1221 of pleurisy, spending his last days in poverty. With most of the land ravaged and the natives without a resident leader, Genghis Khan placed Khwarezm in the hands of military governors and prepared to leave. The western lands were, therefore, under Mongol rule, and a newly forged peace was restored along the Silk Road. Growth from this peace was lucrative; Muslim merchants began trading so heavily that goods flowed freely from the northern reaches of the Yellow Sea to the oasis cities in the Taklamakan.
Restored Trade and Trade in New Lands
The conquests of the Mongol Empire in the early thirteenth century left the nomadic people with a sense of wealth and a taste for luxury. The Silk Road was a major provider for both, allowing the elite to indulge and the poor to thrive. Silk under Mongol rule was a lucrative trade supported by their ability to impose. They established new silk factories to boost the production of silk in the newly acquired lands in Khwarezm, and sent Chinese silk weavers to Samarkand to work with local Muslim weavers. This kind of organized technical training allowed the Silk Road to flourish like never before, opening more routes along the road and catering to a broader array of travelers. After the western lands were laid to waste, the Mongol empire was able to build infrastructure that could make travel on the Silk Road easier. This infrastructure and desire for luxury goods, both the result of conquest, would give the Silk Road the staying-power it needed to outlast the Mongol Empire—though it fell to a more lucrative maritime trade shortly thereafter.
The most highly sought commodity on the Mongol Silk Road was cloth-of-gold. It represented power and wealth, as it was used as draperies in palace tents of the elite and worn as clothing during grand festivals. It served as a symbol of wealth, which the Mongol elite had grown accustomed to after fifty years of cross-continental reign. They would hold massive festivities, celebrating at every opportunity, but this luxury good had to be produced and moved across the Silk Road to reach wealthy Mongols in north-western Asia. This lust for precious foreign products was a driving force for Mongol expansion. As these precious goods were traded across Eurasia, so were localized goods that came with religious and ethnic minorities. Tracking this trade signifies the reach of the Mongol empire; as the Silk Road flourished and expanded, so did their reach.
Under the leadership of Ogedei, the Mongol Empire had expanded as far east as Hungary by 1257 C.E., with the trade network reaching as far as Italy. The poor and the elite were able to benefit from Mongol expansion, as most of those subjugated by the Mongol Empire enjoyed exotic luxury goods, gold, and the finest silk. The merchants on the Silk Road provided a crucial service for the Mongols, allowing gold, silver, and their spoils of war to be exchanged for goods the Mongols really wanted, such as silk and cloth-of-gold.Were it not for the merchants—most of which were Muslims engaged in small scale commerce—these goods could not have made it so far. To ensure the safety of its merchant partners, the Mongol Empire had to maintain, and often restore, oasis cities they had recently destroyed. In the arid western reaches of the Mongol Empire, agrarian societies depended heavily on irrigation systems, previously destroyed by Subutai’s troops. The only way to support these systems and reestablish trade was to rebuild the war-torn cities. After these cities were rebuilt, silk factories were erected while Chinese and Muslim weavers began learning one another’s technique for cloth making. These cloth makers brought in more merchants, and nurtured the growth of the Silk Road as new routes opened to sell goods throughout the end of the thirteenth century. Without these merchants seeking wares for their Mongol counterparts, trade on the Silk Road would have slowed dramatically.
The Mongols had to rebuild Samarkand in the same way they had to rebuild cities closer to the central empire, but more was at stake with this city of commerce because of its link with European trade. The importance of Samarkand as a trade city is paramount, considering it served as a gateway to the western trade routes on the Silk Road. When the rebuilding process began, the Mongol empire relied heavily on preexisting systems of economic support. The complex irrigation systems in Samarkand, established during the early Middle Ages, took a major hit during Genghis Khan’s conquest of the Khwarezm Empire, but were slowly rebuilt throughout the reign of his Mongol predecessors. These rebuilt irrigation systems boosted the small agrarian economy, reduced disease, and made the city more appealing to Silk Road travelers.Samarkand’s merchants, the Sogdians, were another column of economic support during the rebuilding period. Their commercial interests in trade and their well-established connections with merchants in the west made them an indispensable resource for rebuilding the oasis city, and boosted trade even after Mongol ruin. With trade beginning to regenerate in Samarkand and other oasis cities under Mongol reconstruction, the Silk Road entered its last great age.
Decline of the Silk Road
The decline of a nation most often comes with a great defeat, whether it be economic, political, or in warfare. After the death of Ogedei, a new Khan was chosen. Khubilai Khan, nephew of Ogedei and grandson of Genghis, reigned much like his predecessors: conquering multiple foreign lands. His most notable conquest was that of the Southern Song Dynasty, which reigned south of the Yellow River Valley. His synthesized politics, which were meant to appeal to the Chinese as well, opened the floor for leadership of a new government based on Mongol rule. The Yuan Dynasty and a stable, prosperous state was the product of Khubilai’s reign. After nearly seventy years of Yuan Rule, Tamerlane came to the throne in 1360 C.E. He was one of the most ferocious conquers the world had seen at the time, reducing the Genghisid to nothing more than figureheads. He led “kill-and-destroy” campaigns against other oasis cities and worsened, in many cases, the damage done by Genghis Khan, only partly repaired thereafter. “Cities were depopulated, fields and orchards dried up, and the Silk Road trade never recovered.” He reduced any opposing city to rubble, and crippled foreign relations with his neighbors. Even when the Ming Dynasty took control of East Asia in the latter half of the fourteenth century, the Silk Road was unable to rise from the destruction left my Tamerlane. The Ming, still very aware of the pain caused by the tyrant ruler, turned its politics inward and shut out the rest of the world.
Tamerlane’s conquests were incredibly destructive, burning cities and leaving economies crippled, but he did leave a glimmer of hope seated in the west. Trade in the city of Samarkand reached its height during his reign, proving Mongol influence on Silk Road trade routes. A slow rebuilding from the ruin by his predecessors had left Tamerlane with the right to rebuild Samarkand at his own discretion. He:Gave orders...that a street should be built to pass right through Samarkand, which should have shops opened on either side of it in which every kind of merchandise should be sold, and this new street was to go from one side of the city through to the other side, traversing the heart of the township.
Tamerlane rebuilt much like Khubilai and Ogedei had, boosting the local economy by erecting shops and drawing merchants to the oasis cities that had been destroyed. Samarkand was the final outpost of trade on the Silk Road for the Mongols, but its trade could not support the weight of a crumbling empire.
The rise, prosperity, and decline of the Mongol Empire was interlocked with that of the Silk Road. Under mostly Mongol control, the Silk Road saw moments of chaos during wars with western nations. Although conquest was not Genghis Khan’s initial intent, he had a responsibility as a leader to take the crown of Shah Mohammed, and punish the corrupt members of the Shah’s government. Great generals, under the order of the Khan, stormed the foreign land seeking vengeance. After discovering the vast benefits of conquest in the west, the Khan grew to believe all the land under the sky should be unified under one sword—his own. Peace grew from destruction and ruin that was left in the lands in the west, and with that peace locals regained the right to trade freely. The Mongols encouraged this trade by restoring the infrastructure of destroyed cities, training people in new technical skills acquired in the west, and financing merchants. The Mongol Empire revitalized trade on the Silk Road, stretching Chinese silk as far as the shores of Italy.
The global impact of the trade and conquest led by the Mongols was the last wide-spread, land-based global exchange known to mankind. It fostered in a new maritime trade that revolutionized global relations, just as the Silk Road once had done. The Mongol Empire fell in sync with trade on Silk Road, as a new dynasty came to power. The legacy of the Mongol Empire is undoubtedly riddled with complications, but it gave rise to the last great age of the Silk Road. As academics are still puzzled over the rapid development of the Mongols from a divided people to a conqueror of nations, their first step into Central Asia is a major point of disagreement. Though there were clearly moments that left central Asia in ruin, we can see that development, trade, and a stable Mongol government led the Silk Road into its last great age. ... See MoreSee Less
The Hazara Mongols There are three of Mongols living in Afghanistan,collectively known as Hazara or Hazarajat.These tribal people,living in the high mountainous central plateau of Afghanistan ,are said to be descendants of Genghis Khan’s grandsons,whose armies crossed through this country,in bands of 1000 horsemen,known as hazara(Hezar,’one thousand’ in Persian).The Mongols withdrew leaving a remnant trapped in this inhospitable terrain,where they have remained ever since.The Hazara resemble Mongols and are distinguished from other Afghans by their facial features-high cheekbones,broad,flat faces and almond eyes.They are also nomadic people.The Hazara who live in Afghanistan,Pakistan,Iran.They speak Dari(Afghan/Persian Language) and Urdu language.Majority of hazara are shia(shi’iet), minority of them are sunni and christian and their language contains a good deal of Mongol words.Fascinating recent genetic studies show that the Hazara people are indeed related to Genghis khan and carry evidence in their genes to prove it ... See MoreSee Less
Buryat Mongols The Northern Mongolians, also known as the Buryat, are believed to be the descendants of the western Mongols and the northern Siberians. Of the large number of Northern Mongolians, only a relatively small number live in Mongolia. They primarily inhabit the forested lowland regions along the Russia-Mongolia border.
The territory that once belonged to the Northern Mongolian's ancestors includes the regions along Lake Baikal, which is located in present-day Siberia. Three quarters of all Northern Mongolians still live there, in a region that is now known as the Buriat Autonomous Republic.
The Northern Mongolians are very similar to the Khalkha Mongols, particularly in their physical features, dialects, and customs. In fact, they are often indistinguishable from neighboring Mongol tribes. However, they maintain a number of small differences, the most significant of which is their language. Traditionally, Northern Mongolians were nomadic shepherds who raised horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and a few camels. Today, many still raise horses and sheep. Others have jobs in wood-related industries or coal mines; some trap animals; and many work on collective farms.
A number of Northern Mongolians still live as semi-nomadic herdsmen, migrating seasonally with their animals. Their dwellings are portable gers or yurts, which are round felt tents that have brightly painted wooden doors. Urban Northern Mongolians live in Soviet-built apartment complexes.
Due to the harshness of the climate in Mongolia, the people consume much fat and meat (mainly mutton) during winter, and dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, and sour cream during summer. Their favorite drink is airag, which is fermented mare's milk.
In their traditional social organization, Northern Mongolians were separated into nobility, commoners, and slaves. Their society was based on the clan (extended family) or lineage. A man's home, political position, inheritance, and status were all determined by his clan membership. Formerly, marriages were arranged by the parents, whereas today, most marriages are initiated by the couples themselves. Sadly, the divorce rate has increased in recent years.
Northern Mongolians love music, folk dances, chess, and sporting events. Every July, the ancient Naadam festival is celebrated throughout Mongolia. Sporting events are held in horse racing, archery, and wrestling.
Buriat, the native language of Northern Mongolians, is not yet a written language. However, all Northern Mongolians also speak the national language, Halh Mongolian. Halh is used as their literary language. ... See MoreSee Less
The Kalmyks originate from Central Asia. Their ancestors — the Oirats — belonged to the western branch of Mongolian peoples and represented a very powerful alliance of tribes which were formations of the early feudal state under which dominion the whole Mongolia was in the first half of XV сentury. Consequently interregional conflicts and a number of military bad lucks caused the reduction of Oirat Empire. In the end of XVI century, part of the Oirats who lived in Dzhungaria moved to the North-West in search of new pastures and trade partners. During their long way through South and Western Siberia to the lower Volga the “separated” Oirats were called the Kalmyks
In the early XVII century the Kalmyks became subjects of the Russian Empire, having become powerful guards of its South borders and obtained vast territories for nomading in the interfluves of Yaik and Volga, in Don and Caspian sea. The Kalmyk Khanate was formed there and became an important vassal state of the Russian Empire. The Kalmyk Khanate reached its zenith of military and political power under Ayuka Khan (1669–1724). During his era, the Kalmyk Khanate fulfilled its responsibility to protect the southern borders of Russia and conducted a myriad military expeditions against its Turkic-speaking neighbors. Successful military expeditions were also conducted in the Caucasus. The Khanate experienced economic prosperity from free trade with Russian border towns, China, Tibet and even with their Muslim neighbors. During this era, the Kalmyks also kept close contacts with their Oirat kinsmen in Dzungaria, as well as the Dalai Lama in Tibet. Nowadays, the Republic of Kalmykia is a federal subject of Russia and consists of 13 administrative districts and 3 cities ... See MoreSee Less
Over the years Mongolian nomads have developed a number of unique dairy products, which are made in traditional ways and include different types of yoghurt, cottage cheese, dried curds and fermented dairy products. Milk and cream are used to make a variety of beverages. The dairy products of the herding sector are consumed domestically. Cows and mares are the main sources but ewes are sometimes milked for a few weeks after weaning. Lactations are short and cattle are usually dried off by October, when feed has become scarce. Much of the milk in the short season is processed to conserve it for later use Milk and meat are the pillars of Mongolian cuisine. Milk also holds a special symbolic place as a ‘white food’.
Milk is used in several Mongolian rituals, including the ritual of tossing milk into the air or sprinkling it onto a person, animal, or object, as an offering to the spirits, a supplication, a blessing, or a protection.
Historical and ethnographic accounts show that Mongolian dairy products have generally been processed in identical ways from the 13th century to today, although the terminology differs somewhat from region to region. Mongols milk all five of the animals but they tend to put the milk to different uses. Thus, mare’s milk is generally fermented into Airag/Koumiss, sheep and goat’s milk is mostly used in tea or cheeses, while cow’s milk is used for all three purposes.
Zöökhii, or cream, is one of the simplest dairy products to make, being produced by letting the milk curdle in a warm place for six to eight hours and skimming the cream off the top. This cream is strained and churned to form “white oil” (tsagaan tos), which is then gently melted to separate the “yellow oil” (shar tos), or clarified butter. The residue from the separation of “white oil” is tsötsgii, a delicious cream eaten in recent times mixed with cane sugar and fried millet.
Once the cream is skimmed off, the rest of the milk may be poured into a kettle over a gentle flame until it separates into curds and “yellow milk” (sharasü). The yellow milk is boiled and then mixed with culture and allowed to ferment, forming chagaa. The chagaa is then placed in sacks and the liquid squeezed out with a weight, forming a semisolid aarts. Dried in the sun, aarts becomes khuruud, a kind of rockhard cheese. This cultured cheese can be preserved indefinitely and was part of the regular rations of soldiers on campaigns. It is reconstituted for eating by placing it in hot water.
In the Middle Ages this was done by putting it in a skin and beating it, while in modern times it is often placed in tea. Today the aarts is frequently mixed with sugar and squeezed through a meat grinder to form wormlike pieces of sweet aaruul, a popular holiday and gift product. Another form of khuruud is made today without culture by pressing unfermented curds into moulds to make pieces of hard, round, dry curds used to decorate hospitality plates.
In the fall öröm rather than zöökhii is made. Öröm is a kind of coagulated foamy cream. By gently heating (to about 80°C) and ladling the milk, a foam is produced, which when the fire is weakened coagulates. By carefully adding new milk around the edges and reheating three to four times, a thick layer of öröm is formed, which after cooling overnight can be removed. ... See MoreSee Less
Khalkha Mongols Khalkha, largest group of the Mongol peoples, constituting more than 80 percent of the population of Mongolia. The Khalkha dialect is the official language of Mongolia. It is understood by 90 percent of the country’s population as well as by many Mongols elsewhere.
Traditionally, the Khalkha were a nomadic, pastoral people. Under Genghis Khan and his successors, they became a warlike imperial nation. ... See MoreSee Less
Tengrism ( Tenger) - The Sky God belief. It's all about loving and protecting nature, being around nature, also it teaches not to be dogmatic etc. Mongolians were living the nomadic life for centuries, therefore Mongolians have love and respect for mother nature which is shown in our culture/ traditional lifestyle, poem, literature and songs. ... See MoreSee Less
Pax Mongolica After the Mongols conquered many lands and created their enormous empire there came a peaceful time called the Pax Mongolica(Mongol peace). Pax Mongolica, also known as the Mongol Peace was a period of time where peace, stability, economic growth, cultural fusion and cultural development were happening around the Mongol’s occupied territories. Pax Mongolica was a time of spreading different ideas and a great cultural expansion around Europe and Asia. Pax Mongolica basically enabled a widespread global communication with the different nations ruled by the Mongols. This led different cultures to blend with each other and combine different philosophies. One example of this blend was the adaptation of Mongols to Islam. The Mongols gained their enormous empire by using force and brutality, but during the Pax Mongolica, they let the captured rulers remain in power in exchange they had to pay respect to the Mongols. The Mongols promoted peace and stability during the Pax Mongolica and wanted an empire that can prosper in trading. The Mongols created networks of trade routes all around Asia and Europe. At the peak of their power the Mongols controlled what is now present day Hungary all the way to China. Due to the enormous territory the Mongols occupied and the importance of trade they had to put a massive effort to protect their trade routes. They kept their trade routes safe for each occupied area, so the merchants and travelers were safe during their expeditions. In addition to establishing a world-wide trade system, the Mongols also developed a postal system. It was called the Yam. The Yam was a way of communicating between the different parts of the Mongolian empire. How the Yam worked was it was a series of stations far part from each other where a messenger would travel from station to station and pass along his message. The Pax Mongolica can be pictured as a mountain. The beginning, the rise, the peak, and the fall of the Pax Mongolica depicts a mountain. After the peak of the Mongolica comes the fall and decline. The fall of the Pax Mongolica was brought to be by multiple causes. Those causes include corruption within the Mongolica, attacks of key places, and the deadliest one which is disease. The bubonic plague outbreak was happening during the time of the Pax Mongolica. The plague spread through the empire really quickly because of the traders and because of how easily infected people could roam about the continent. In conclusion the Pax Mongolica gave many contributions to the modern world by sparking trade within the continent of asia and with the new inventions and technologies that they created. ... See MoreSee Less
Armored in chain mail Attila,the king of huns Attends in vacant land Like a strong and shaggy bear Dreary like at cemetery!, the warriors behind like tides of ocean and thunderstorms of heaven cry for battle: "where is the rome,that rome,the mettlesome!" by Maxim Gorky's poem ... See MoreSee Less