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🔵🔵🔵 INTRODUCTION 🔵🔵🔵 🙏Page(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17) 🐺🔴Mirza Irfan Baig Borjigin🔴🐺
🔥The East has known only three great men. Sakyamuni was born a prince around 500 BC in what is now Nepal. Distressed by human suffering, he left his family, achieved enlightenment through meditation, and became the Buddha. According to his teachings, life is painful, the origin of pain is desire, the end of pain can be achieved by ending desire, and the way to this is through right living. This philosophy of ‘cause and effect’ spread northwards into Tibet, where it absorbed the popular Bon religion and changed greatly in nature. The resulting synthesis, known as Lamaism, can be criticised as passive and fatalistic. Lamaism became popular among the Mongols1 during the reign of Qubilai Qahan (1215–1294).
🔥Confucius was born at around the same time as the Buddha, into China’s lower aristocracy. Confucius wanted to restore China to a golden age of peace. He also said that ‘the universe belongs to the public’, but although he emphasised the need for ethical conduct, he believed implicitly in a society shaped by the hereditary right of aristocrats. He helped to endow Chinese with the idea that China lay at the centre of the universe; and he persuaded ordinary Chinese to confine their loyalties to their family and the emperor. Confucianism spread to the countries of the East that practised settled agriculture, but not to nomadic countries like Mongolia.
🐺Temüjin, the personal name of Chinggis Qahan, was born on the sixteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the year 1162 into the family of a tribal leader. Some historians, for example the Persian Rashid al-Din (1247– 1318), who was of Jewish origin, say that Chinggis was born earlier, in 1155, the Year of the Pig. Neither Jews nor Muslims (nor, for that matter, Mongols) like pigs, and many Persians deeply hated the Mongols, who set up a dynasty (the Il-Qahan, which ran from 1265 to 1335), in their country. So it was probably with some satisfaction that Rashid al-Din determined 1155 as the year of birth of the Mongol world-conqueror. Chinggis did, however, die in a Pig Year, 1227.
🐺Mongol society developed in three stages. It rose on the basis of a hunting economy in the forest regions to the north of the Mongol heartland. During this period was created the title mergen, meaning ‘a good hunter’ or ‘an intelligent person’. When the Mongols emerged from the forests, they created a new title, ba’atur, or ‘hero’, which shows that the distinct Mongol tribes of the day were at war with one another and were probably engaged in a nomadic way of life. Around the eighth century, two new titles appeared: noyan, meaning ‘lord’, and qan, usually transcribed in English as ‘khan’.
🔹In the sixth century, Turkic nomadic tribes, later known as Orkhon Turkish, moved into the territory of present-day Mongolia and ruled the area until the middle of the seventh century, when they were replaced by the Uighurs (who stayed until the eighth and ninth centuries). By the tenth century, the Liao Dynasty (also known as Kitan) was established in the eastern part of the region, present-day Manchuria. The Kitan were in power from 916 to 1119, when they, in turn, were replaced by another nomadic people, the Jin Dynasty, also known as Altan Ulus (1115– 1234). The Mongols were a small nomadic tribe in the area of Ergön2 and kölen Na’ur.3 This mongol tribe moved to the Kelüren,4 Onon, and Tula5 districts around the years following 970,6 and was one of the many tribal peoples shifting about nomadically during this period. The people of the felt walled tents were the Tatars, the Onggirads, the Kereyids, the Naimans, the Tayichi’uds, and the Merkids. All these groups spoke a language akin to that of the Mongols, but they were only included in the category of Mongols after they had been conquered by, or pledged alliance to, the Mongol tribe. Chinggis Qahan’s ancestors belonged to the Kiyad group of the Borjigin clan of the Mongol tribe.
♦️Tribal feuds and struggles for power continued for many generations among the tribes, while foreign enemies such as the Liao Dynasty and the Jin ruled them from the east. The Tangqut nation (1002–1227) to the south and the Uighurs to the west were awaiting their turn to attack.
🔹By the twelfth century, however, the nations surrounding the area of present-day Mongolia were growing weaker; this was especially so of the Jin Dynasty, which was at war with the Song Dynasty of southern China. At the same time the Mongols, along with the other nomadic tribes, were becoming stronger economically through their vast herds of livestock. To enjoy this new prosperity, they sought to put an end to tribal warfare and to live in peace with one another, and at the same time to present a united front to external enemies. Chinggis Qahan, born in 1162, fulfilled a need for his people. The many tribes were strong, but lacked a leader to weld them into one. Temüjin was first elevated as Chinggis Qahan by his tribe, in 1189, and confirmed as such by all the Mongols in 1206, at a great gathering of Mongol nobles and high-ranking commanders of the Mongol cavalry on the Kelüren River. This gathering marked the unification of the Mongol tribes and the birth of the Mongol military machine, and was the first step towards the creation of a new order on the steppe.
🐺Before Chinggis Qahan, the Mongols lacked a sense of their identity as a people. Chinggis’ historic role was to endow them with such a sense. His strong identification with his ancestral homelands, almost akin to modern nationalism, is well illustrated by the following incident. He sent a message to three of his followers who had left him to join one of his Mongol rivals. He told them that they were now on their own, but that they should never let anyone other than a Mongol set up camp at the source of the three rivers, the Kelüren, the Tu’ula, and the Onon.
🐺The Mongol tribes professed an ancestral Shamanism; their great deity was the sky, which they worshipped together with the spirits inhabiting the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the water, the trees, and all natural things. As Shamanists, they had no church, nor had they a need for one, since worship was often a matter of immediate communication between the individual and the world of nature; the intermediacy of Shaman priests was an option that Chinggis himself often preferred not to use. For Shamanists, the soul is linked directly to Heaven and the individual is therefore the centre of his own universe. Heaven is nothing more nor less than the consciousness of each one of us. Heaven is our guide; under it we are born free and equal. 🐺Chinggis Qahan was never influenced by the passive philosophy of Buddhism or the rigid doctrines of Confucianism, which reduced the universe to the family or the state. The universe to which Chinggis and the Mongols owed allegiance was bound by neither kin nor place. That is why just two million Mongols, with 129,000 cavalrymen, could establish the largest land empire in world history. 🔹The other great peoples of Asia—for example, the Indians and the Chinese—were never able to match this achievement.
🔹The reason for this failure lies in the Indian and Chinese view of the world, which was more trammelled and restricted than that of the Mongols, who, at the time, lacked even a word for ‘country’. (Ulus, which in those days meant ‘nation’, has since acquired the additional meaning of ‘country’ in modern Mongolian.) As a result, the Mongols came to consider the universe as their ger or tent.
🔵The thirteenth -century Mongols represented pastoral civilisation, the eighteenth-century British, oceanic civilisation, and the twentieth-century Americans, scientific civilisation. What motives led them to establish empires? The British and the Americans were seeking to colonise land and space; the Mongols were simply rising to the challenge. ‘If Heaven grants a way,’ Chinggis told his sons, ‘you will embark on campaigns beyond the sea….
Beyond the mountain rocks you will launch campaigns….
Send back news on wings.’
The late Professor Owen Lattimore maintained that Chinggis Qahan was the greatest strategist the world has ever produced. He wrote: ‘As a military genius, able to take over new techniques and improve on them, Chinggis stands above Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Caesar, Attila and Napoleon.’ (More recently, the Washington Post named Chinggis Qahan its Man of the Millennium, describing him as ‘an apostle of extremes who embodies the half-civilised, half-savage duality of the human race’. Tongue-in-cheek, the Post rejected Columbus for the millennial honour as ‘somewhat boring’.)
♦️The map below shows the empires of Alexander the Great, Qubilai Qahan (1215–1294), and Napoleon. The Mongol Empire under Qubilai stretched from Java and Korea in the east to Poland in the west, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Persia in the south. The Mongols opened a transcontinental road between East and West along which, for the first time in one thousand years, humans and cultural objects and influences could once again be safely exchanged. They linked Asia and Europe by horse relay stations that shortened the distance between the central places of the two continents. During the Mongols’ Hungarian campaign in March 1242, news of the death of the Second Great Qahan Ögödei took just forty days to get from the Mongol homeland to Budapest, some 4,000 miles away. According to reports, urgent messages could be transmitted by express couriers at a rate of two hundred or more miles a day.
🐺In the thirteenth century, the Mongol territories abutted the Jin empire (1115–1234) to the south (including the region later known as Manchuria); China, under the Song Dynasty, lay beyond the Jin. The Jin people, originally nomads, had been heavily influenced by Chinese culture and had come to follow Confucian norms. To the southwest of Mongolia was the Xi Xia Kingdom of the Tanguts. Further west still, around the oases of Central Asia, were the Uighurs, a Turkish people once strong but now in military decline. By the early thirteenth century, fighting between the Jin and the Song had seriously weakened both states. These troubles to the south, and a long period of relative internal peace, had diminished the pressure on the Mongols, who, by the end of the twelfth century, had significantly increased their livestock. To maintain their prosperity (and eventually transform themselves into a world power), they needed dynamic, centralised leadership of the sort that Chinggis Qahan eventually provided.
🐺Chinggis was a far-sighted ruler and a born diplomat, who understood the wishes of his people and led them skilfully. Between the start of his ascendancy and his death in 1227, he killed none of the generals with whom he built his empire, not one of whom betrayed him. (In this respect, empire-builders of the twentieth century would have done well to learn from him.)
🐺Temüjin emerged from a hard childhood as a natural leader and born diplomat. Though said to be illiterate,8 he knew instinctively how to deal with other tribal chiefs, and, being a born leader himself, was raised first to the position of a tribal Qan in 1189, and then to the exalted role of Great Qahan of Mongolia in 1206, when he was given the title of Chinggis Qahan. By that time he was married (c. 1178) with a son, Jochi.9
🐺Chinggis Qahan established his empire and held it together on three vital ties, expressed in the words quda, anda, and nökör. He used these concepts, familiar to the nomad tribes, with enormous skill and foresight as the means to unite a sprawling and shifting population and create a superb fighting machine.
🔵Quda was the tie of marriage. Chinggis Qahan made many skilful marriage alliances, as for instance when he gave one of his daughters to Arslang Qan of the Qarlu’ud because the Qan had submitted to him without a fight. A potential enemy thus became a son-in-law.10
🔵Anda was the tie of sworn brotherhood, ratified by a valuable gift such as the black sable-skin jacket that Chinggis presented to To’oril Qan of the Kereyid tribe, who was his father’s anda.11 In this case, too, an unbreakable bond was created that only death could sever.
🔵Nökör was the tie of friendship and held Chinggis’ followers to him in a relationship rather like that between Europe’s medieval lord and liegeman. Wielding these three ties, he created a vast network of loyalty and had the confidence of knowing that he could rely on many and farflung tribesmen when he needed their support, held as they all were in the strong web that he had so skilfully woven.
🐺Chinggis Qahan also used his intimate knowledge of tribal affairs and his natural flair for diplomacy to manipulate the Mongols under him. For instance, he joined with the Nestorian Önggüds (who lived in the southern part of Ulaanchab League and the northern part of Ikh Juu League of present-day Inner Mongolia) by a marriage alliance. 12 Later, they acted as guides for him when he attacked the Jin Dynasty in 1211. He used the Uighurs in the same way in his attack on the Kara Kitad in 1218. Those same Kara Kitad then acted in their turn as guides for him and his armies when they moved to the Khwarizm area. Before sending in his army to attack, Chinggis despatched agents to discover everything they could of the political, economic, and military situation of the target people. When he learned of the religious conflict between Buddhists and Muslims in the Qara Kitad region, for example, he instructed his commander-in-chief, Lord Jebe, to proclaim complete religious freedom in 1218.
🔥Agents or spies played a vital part in all his wars, and on more than one occasion saved his own life, as when Badai and Kishiliq gave him vital information 14 and when Qoridai of the Gorolas tribe prevented a crisis by providing crucial facts.15 His spies, it seems, were everywhere—hence Tayan Qahan’s wife’s remark that ‘the Mongols smell bad’.16
🔥News flowed through four main channels besides spies. These channels were: the Mongolian caravans, always on the move; prisoners-of-war forced to hand over information; others who voluntarily surrendered; and the members of tribes subjugated by those about to be attacked.
🔹As a Shamanist who lacked religious fervour and believed in the right to worship freely, in 1218 Chinggis proclaimed to his subjects a policy of religious toleration. He saw the wisdom of allowing religious freedom, recognising what a powerful part of society was its religious belief, as when Teb Tenggeri challenged his authority.17
🔹The Catholic inquisitors of Europe,’ wrote the historian Gibbon, ‘…might have been confounded by the example of a barbarian, who anticipated the lessons of philosophy and established by his laws a system of pure theism and perfect toleration.’18 This policy of toleration and respect for all religions, continued by Qubilai after his accession, was unique for its time. However, it was motivated less by high mindedness than by expediency, for it was a effective weapon in Chinggis’ wars against peoples of other religions, and it enabled Chinggis to manipulate the rivalries and conflicts between Muslims, Buddhists, and Christians in the territories that he conquered.
🙏Iron discipline and matchless speed were not the only reasons for the Mongols’ successes in their wars of conquest. These successes also owed much to their employment of foreign collaborators. (Eventually, Turks outnumbered actual Mongols in the Mongol armies.) The Mongols under Chinggis and his successors showed little evidence of the xenophobia that has frequently resulted in the closing of China to outside influences. As a result of their flexible, pragmatic, and receptive attitude, they learned much that was a source of great strength to them while establishing their empire and administering it.
♦️In matters of punishment and reward, Chinggis was known as strict but generous and fair. When the herdsmen Badai and Kishiliq informed him that Ong Qan was about to attack him, and thus saved his life and that of many of his men, he handed them the defeated Ong Qan’s property.19
🐺Before Chinggis, the basic social and political unit of Mongol society was the patriarchal tribe, which focused the loyalty of each individual. Chinggis broke up this tribal system and replaced it with a feudal army organised according to an artificial decimal system, with units of between ten and ten thousand, centred mainly on the thousands. Within these units, which covered Mongolia’s entire manpower, who were universally conscripted, he intermixed the tribes, especially those of his former enemies, which he broke up and distributed across the army. To lead the thousands, he appointed 95 elite commanders who included both tribal chiefs, humble herdsmen like Badai and Kishiliq, and members of vassal clans. The resulting organisation had some features in common with the general staff of a modern army.
♦️Although he understood the tribal and clan system very well, he was strong and wise enough to know when to dispense with it, and to organise his army in units with commanders who owed their position to merit rather than to inherited chieftainship. His commanders received not only positions of authority but valuable rewards.20
🐺Chinggis despised anyone who betrayed his own rightful master, even if that master was his own enemy,21 and he rewarded enemies who fought bravely against him to allow their own leader to escape. He was ready to see in everyone, friend or foe, the qualities he admired. But he was also fierce in punishing the lapses of his foes. Under Chinggis in 1204, the Mongols adapted to their own use the Uighur script, which they employed to codify Mongol law, to diffuse the law among the Mongol tribes, and to write this History. (Today this script, dropped by the Communists in favour of the Russian cyrillic alphabet, has been revived in what used to be the Mongolian People’s Republic.)
🔥Four items of Mongol law illustrate the character of Mongol society under Chinggis. Any person who eats in front of another without offering that person food must be executed. Anyone caught stealing anything of value may be freed after paying back nine times’ its worth. Anyone guilty of hurting a horse’s eyes must be executed. And anyone found indulging in homosexual practices should be executed.
🔹After securing his home front by uniting the Mongol tribes, Chinggis first subdued the steppe and desert nomads of Central Asia right up to the Dnieper River in southern Russia and only then turned south to attack the Jin, which he considered a lesser danger, being somewhat more sedentary. Beijing fell to him in 1215; by 1234, seven years after his death, the Jin empire lay in ruins. From here, the Mongols vaulted south into China proper, where Qubilai established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271 and finally overthrew the Song in 1279.
🐺The horsemanship of the Mongol cavalry is unrivalled in the history of war. Mongol archers conquered the world from their horses, wielding bows with a drawing strength of 166 pounds, accurate over six or seven hundred feet. Chinggis Qahan was one of the world’s greatest strategists. He kept his armies constantly on the move, for he feared that, left to themselves without an external enemy to unite them, they would start to fight among themselves. His campaigns were precisely planned and brilliantly executed. His generals were expert at siege warfare (which they learned from the Chinese and used to take walled fortresses), bridge building, and the lightning strike; and they were masters of the art of deception, espionage, and psychological warfare. Field intelligence played a crucial part in Chinggis’ wars, enabling him to mount flank attacks with flying horse columns, to encircle the enemy and block his escape, and to synchronise distant forces by signalling with smoke, lanterns, and coloured flags.
🔹By the time of his death, Chinggis had laid the foundations for a vast Eurasian empire that his immediate descendants extended to most of the known world, with the sea as their sole remaining barrier. (The Mongol fleet sent to subdue Japan was destroyed by the kamikaze or divine wind, and Mongol ships tried unsuccessfully to subdue Java.)
🔹Reports by non-Mongols of the Mongol campaigns were often grossly prejudiced and exaggerated. According to one, in 1225 the Mongols killed 1,600,000 people in a small city called Herat to the southwest of Samarkand, capital of the territory; another puts the death toll even higher, at 2,400,000. But these reports can hardly be true, for at the time even Samarkand had a population of no more than 200,000. Another account, written in 1240 by Matthew Paris, a monk at St Albans near London, in his Chronica Majora, testifies to European dismay at reports of the Mongol horsemen then ravaging the settlements and cities of Russia. The Mongol horses were so huge, reported Paris, that they ate whole branches and even trees, and could only be mounted by means of three-step ladders. But these are histories written by the vanquished, just as the History is written by the victors.
🔹Chinggis Qahan has become a byword in popular thinking for pitiless and wanton cruelty, but this picture of him is unfair, for his forces rarely used torture. Whether in their Russian or their Chinese campaigns, the Mongols under Chinggis always delivered a full warning to their intended victims: give in within three or six days and we will spare you, otherwise we will fight you to the death and give no quarter. They are generally credited with having kept their word.
🐺The Mongols never fought undeclared wars. If they collected too late to attack, they slept beside their enemy until the morning, after giving full warning of their intentions. 22 However, once battle was engaged, no quarter was given, and there was no concept of a ‘gentleman’s’ engagement. There were no rules of war that could not be broken. Statistics of slaughter are, however, exaggerated.23
🐺🔥As for the Mongol ponies, in truth they were rather small, but they were extremely tough, and made up in stamina and endurance for what they lacked in speed. They could gallop for thirty kilometres without pausing.
🐺The Mongols built their empire on the horse, just as the British 700 years later built theirs on ships. The mobility of the Mongol cavalry was matchless, the speed of their horserelays breathtaking. An imperial decree took 40 days to arrive in the extreme western part of the Golden Horde (about 4,000 miles distance) in 1241, carried there from Mongolia, by men and horses bred to exertion and hardship.
🐺Chinggis Qahan never fought a battle that he was not sure of winning, and used his troops with cunning as well as power, sending one section to attack from the front while he and his picked forces galloped along seemingly impassable roads and poured down on the enemy from behind. The strategy and tactics of Mongolian warfare are described briefly in Section 195, but Chinggis’ two great battles of Chabchiyal24 and Kwarizm25 are perfect examples of his style. In the second battle, being so far away from his homeland, he adopted the tactics of a lightning strike. He was aided by newly acquired techniques in bridge-building and the use of gun powder. With his Mongol army, he facilitated communication between Asia and Europe, increasing the intercontinental cultural exchange.
🐺Chinggis and his armies moved with the momentum they had created. His desire to attack further afield resulted in success that, in their turn, encouraged him to continue his campaigns. With his new nation to secure and consolidate, he had to protect his northern and eastern frontiers (in Siberia and Manchuria) and his southern borders with the Jin. He then turned his attention westwards, where he was well aware that nomadic tribes (including the Muslims) might try to imitate him by uniting, and must be dealt with before they grew powerful and aggressive. He also knew that nomadic peoples might easily be absorbed into the southern lands of the Jin and Song Dynasties. 🔹He needed to keep his armies moving for a further reason: left to themselves, in the new and powerful country he had created, they would quite possibly become involved in power struggles that might well lead to civil war. Their energy must be turned outwards. Like empire builders before and after, he persuaded himself that since he had the means he also had the right to conquer new territory and to provide for his men and horses.
🐺Chinggis Qahan once said that ‘every man has his use, even if only to gather dried cow dung in the Gobi for fuel’. Perhaps his greatest skill was to make his diverse peoples feel necessary and appreciated. At the time of his death, he had 129,000 Mongol soldiers at his command as empire builders. The population of Mongolia at that time was about 2 million.26 As well as the three bonds of quda, anda, and nökör, there was also a wider bond of pride in a new nation, however dimly this was understood or formulated. Ruthless as he was with his enemies, he had a strict code of honour towards his allies, knowing that he relied on them as implicitly as they on him.
🐺The Mongol Empire was not just the biggest empire of its time, but it was the first Asian empire with a parliament since as early as 1206; one might even say that this parliament had its Lords and Commoners. In this respect, the Mongol Assembly was unique in the history of East and Central Asia. At that time, there were three more or less equally balanced powers—lords, commoners, and religious leaders. The Qahan’s eldest son did not necessarily succeed his father onto the throne—Chinggis himself designated his third son, Ögödei, to succeed him. (In this sense, too, the Mongol system was quite unusual.) As we know from Section 270 of the History, the second Great Qahan Ögödei thought that he had yet to finish the work that his father had left behind. Chinggis Qahan told his sons just before his death: ‘Life is short, I could not conquer all the world. You will have to do it.’ From Ögödei down to the Great Qahan Qubilai, each expanded the territory of the Mongolian Empire by further conquests.The Mongols were known as the Tartars in eastern Europe, especially in Russia. There was a strong Tatar tribe in the eastern part of Mongolia in the thirteenth century. When the Mongols invaded Russia and Europe in 1218–1225 and again in 1237–1242, the Tatar warriors must have gone first, as the vanguard of the main body of Mongol cavalrymen. When the defeated Europeans heard the name Tatar (derived from the Greek word tartarus, ‘hell’), they simply transferred it to the Mongols.
🐺The Mongols wished to know how much territory a people on horseback could conquer. The result was that they widened the road between the continents, so that, in the long run, the peoples of Asia and Europe could move about the world more freely.
🔥In the thirteenth century, when the Mongols wrote their History, they were strongly influenced by Shamanism. One of the few peoples of the twentieth century not exposed to doctrines and ideologies, the Dawr [Da’ur] Mongols are the only ones capable of explaining the History correctly. This is because people from other parts of Mongolia, non-Dawr Mongols, have been influenced by either Buddhism or Confucianism or communism or a combination of two or more of these systems of thought. Linguistically, non-Dawr Mongols have been influenced by the Orkhon Turks, who reached Mongol lands in the sixth century and spread elements of their Orkhon dialect to the Mongols. The Dawrs, by contrast, isolated as they were from the main body of Mongols, have retained their old dialects, which resemble the language of the History.
🔹As a Shamanist myself, I keep three things in the forefront of my mind: we humans, having long been ruled by logic, including doctrine, should now rule logic; I am the centre of the universe, as you are, too, and as is every human being; and I shall face the challenge in life, as you will too.
♦️Whether you succeed or fail in your objectives will depend above all on the balance and timing of your action.
🐺Mongolia is a land of clear blue skies, treeless green pasture, and, to the south, of stony desert. It is cold, dry, and windy for most of the year, but a paradise on earth in July and August. On a hot summer day, sitting among the desert stones and watching the wonderful array of mirages rise before you from the sand, or shimmer in the distance like sheets of water, you are overcome by a delight beyond words. The stars seem close enough to touch to those sitting silently on the sand at night, soothed into a state of tranquil clarity by the chirping of cicadas. (The stars smile down at you, the cicadas lull you into sleep; now and then the land of qahans changes its guard. As the mirages rise before your eyes you forget your age. The land of the camel moves forwards and backwards.) ♦️(Continue)♦️ ... See MoreSee Less
🔥🔥Political Famous Figures Of Mongols🔥🔥 ♦️♦️♦️Ancient period♦️♦️♦️ ============================= 🐺• Modu Chanyu, (234BC–174BC), founder of the Xiongnu Empire 🐺• Tanshihuai, (141–181), King of the Xianbei state 🐺• Murong Tuyuhun, founder of the Tuyuhun (285–670) state 🐺• Tuoba Gui, (371-409), founder of the Northern Wei Empire 🐺• Mugului, first ruler of the Rouran Khaganate 🐺• Jarun, Khagan of the Rouran Khaganate 🐺• Ambagyan, (872–926), founder of the Khitan Empire Medieval age (12th century–1911) 🐺• Yelü Dashi (1087–1143), founder of the Kara-Khitan Khanate 🐺• Khabul Khan, Khan of Khamag Mongol confederation 🐺• Genghis Khan (1162–1227), founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire from 1206 to 1227 🐺• Subutai, (1175–1248), primary military strategist and general of Genghis Khan and Ögedei Khan 🐺• Ögedei Khan (1186–11 December 1241), Great Khan of the Mongol empire from 13 September 1228 to 11 December 1241.Emperor of World (modern Mongolia, Iran, China, Korea, Tibet, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Polish, Slovak, Hungary,etc.) 🐺• Kublai Khan (1215–1294), Great Khan of the Mongol empire (1260–1294), emperor of China (1279–1294). 🐺• Kitbuqa, (died 1260), general of Hulegu khan 🐺• Hulegu, founder of the Ilkhanate in Mongol Persia. 🐺• Galdan Boshugtu Khan, Khan of Zunghar Khanate (1670–1697) 🐺• Batu Khan, (1227–1255), Khan of the Golden Horde. 🐺• Ligden Khan, (1538–1634), last Great Khan of Mongolia 🐺• Mandukhai Khatun, (1449–1510), Empress of Mongolia 🐺• Ögedei Khan, Great Khan of the Mongol empire (1229–1241) 🐺• The 4th Dalai Lama Yonten Gyatso 🐺• Dayan Khan (1464–1517/1543), Khan of Mongolia (1479–1517/1543) 🐺• Erketü Qatun (c.1551–1612), Regent of the Tumed 🐺• Esen taishi (d. 1455), Khaghan of the Mongols, (1454–1455) ... See MoreSee Less
🔥🔥🔥Timeline Of Mongol Empire🔥🔥🔥 🔹Research🔹 🔴Mirza irfan Baig Borjigin🔴
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1162–Temüjin is born in Delüün Boldog near Burkhan Khaldun to the Mongol chieftain Yesugei and Hoelun۰
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1171–Yesugei takes Temüjin east through Tatar territory to the Khongirad homeland to arrange a future marriage between his son and Börte. Temüjin stays with the Khongirads to learn their ways, however Yesugei is poisoned by the Tatars during his return trip. Temüjin leaves Börte for his father, but arrives too late to see his father alive. His father's followers scatter and Hoelun is left to care for their children by herself. She takes them to the Khentii Mountains, where they live for several years.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1184–Temüjin leaves to claim Börte. Börte's father gives him a black sable cloak as dowry, which he later gives to Toghrul of the Keraites to gain his favor. Soon after the Merkits abduct Börte and Temüjin flees. Several months later Temüjin assembles an allied force of over 20,000 with his ally Toghrul and sworn blood brother Jamukha, who attack the Merkits and rescue Börte.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1185–Mongols gather at Burkhan Khaldun to throw their support behind Temüjin in fear of the rising power of Jamukha.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1187–Temüjin allies himself with the Khongirad to wage war on the Tatars. His blood brother Jamukha refuses to acknowledge his leadership and wages war on him. They clash at the Battle of the Thirteen Wings, which ends inconclusively. However Jamukha's rash and vindictive behaviour towards his allies alienates him.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1192–Jin dynasty starts constructing fortifications in the northwest to prevent depredations by the Mongols.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1196–Jin and Mongol troops carry out a punitive expedition against the Tatars.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1201–Mongols opposing Temüjin promote Jamukha to gür-khan.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1202–Mongols exterminate the Tatars.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1203–Temüjin splits with Toghrul ♦️spring—The Keraites defeat Temüjin at Qalaqaljid Sands ♦️Autumn—Temüjin defeats Toghrul at Jeje'er Heights. ♦️Temüjin creates the Kheshig, an elite military guard.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1204–Temüjin defeats the Naimans, Merkits, and Jamukha; Merkit leaders and Jamukha flee to the Altai Mountains ♦️Temüjin pursues Jamukha and defeats him in several battles. Eventually Jamukha's allies betray him and turn him over to Temüjin, who kills him by breaking his back. ♦️The Uyghurs and Ongud submit to Temüjin.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1205–spring—Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Temüjin of the Mongols raids Western Xia's border settlements.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1206–Kokochu, also known as Teb Tengri, chief shaman of the Mongols, bestows upon Temüjin the title of Genghis Khan, "Oceanic Ruler" of the Mongol Empire, at the kurultai of Burkhan Khaldun, sacred mountain of the Mongols.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1207–Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Genghis Khan sacks Wulahai, a Western Xia garrison along the Yellow River near modern Wuyuan. ♦️Jochi subjugates the 'forest peoples' - Kyrgyz, Oirat, and Buryat.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1208–Toq'toa Beki of the Merkits is killed by Mongols and Uyghurs.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1209–Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Genghis Khan penetrates Western Xia from Wulahai and defeats a Tangut army before laying siege to Zhongxing, however the Mongols accidentally flood their own camp in the process of breaking the Yellow River dikes and are forced to retreat. ♦️Qocho, Qayaligh, and Almaliq submit to Genghis Khan; Almaliq and the Issyk-Kul region given to Chagatai khan.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1210–Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia submits to the Mongol Empire and hands over a daughter in marriage to Genghis Khan as well as a large supply of camels, falcons, and woven textiles; a Mongol garrison is left at Wulahai. ♦️Kokochu is killed by Qasar in a wrestling match.
🔵🐺Year——————————Event🔵 1211–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai invade Inner Mongolia. ♦️1211-October—Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jebe takes Juyong Pass from the Jin dynasty ♦️Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Mongol forces retreat from Jin territory ♦️Karluks rebel against the Qara Khitai and defect to the Mongol Empire.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1212–Battle of Yehuling: Genghis Khan and Muqali crush the Jin army led by Wanyan Jiujin, Duji Sizhong, and Hushahu.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 5- January,1213–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jebe takes the Eastern Capital.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1213–July,August—Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan crushes a Jin army led by Zhuhu Gaoqi ♦️Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jochi, Ögedei, and Chagatai ravage Hebei and Shanxi ♦️1213,November—Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan and Jebe pass through the Zijing Gap.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 31-March,1214–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan lays siege to the Central Capital ♦️2014,July—Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Khitan and Tatar defectors lay siege to the Central Capital ♦️31 March 2014–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Jin dynasty becomes a tributary and agrees to hand over a daughter of the previous emperor; the Mongols lift the siege ♦️Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Muqali wipes out Jin centers in Liaoning and southern Manchuria.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 31,May-1215–Battle of Zhongdu: Mongol Empire takes the Central Capital and places the Khitan Shimo Ming'an and Jabar Khoja in charge of the city ♦️23 September—Kublai is born to Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1216–Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai: Jebe seizes Kashgar from the Qara Khitai and Kuchlug flees. ♦️Subutai raids the Kipchaks.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1217–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Genghis Khan appoints Muqali as viceroy of North China and leaves for Mongolia ♦️Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Muqali removes Jin presence in the steppes.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1218–Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Muhammad II of Khwarezm's forces clash with a Mongol army led by Jochi and Subutai, the battle ending inconclusively ♦️Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: A Muslim merchant delegation sent by Genghis Khan arrives at Otrar and the governor Inalchuq kills them, seizing their goods for himself; a sole survivor reaches Mongolia and alerts Genghis, who sends three more envoys to demand custody of Inalchuq - they are also killed ♦️Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Mongol Empire lays siege to Zhongxing and Emperor Xiangzong of Western Xia flees west; his son and officials make peace with the Mongols ♦️Mongol conquest of the Qara Khitai: Shepherds in Badakhshan capture Kuchlug and hand him over to Jebe, who beheads him; so ends the Qara Khitai.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1219–Goryeo becomes a tributary of the Mongol Empire ♦️Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Ögedei and Chagatai take Otrar and massacres its population; Genghis Khan dispatches Jochi to conquer Syr Darya and another army to conquer Fergana ♦️Western Xia refuses to send auxiliaries for the Mongol Empire's western campaigns.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 15 February,1220–Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Bukhara and places Yelü Ahai in control of Transoxiana. ♦️16,March-1220–Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Samarkand and Muhammad II of Khwarezm flees to Nishapur; Genghis Khan dispatches Jebe and Subutai to destroy the sultan ♦️May,1220–Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Jebe and Subutai take Balkh and capture Muhammad II of Khwarezm's mother Terken Khatun and family in the Zagros Mountains ♦️Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Muhammad II of Khwarezm dies.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1221-March—Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Tolui destroys Merv ♦️1221,April—Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Jochi, Chagatai, and Ögedei destroy Urgench while Tolui takes Nishapur and Herat ♦️Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Genghis Khan takes Termez ♦️Siege of Bamyan (1221): Genghis Khan takes Bamyan; Chagatai's son Mutukan dies in the process ♦️November,1221–Battle of Indus: Genghis Khan defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, who swims across the Indus River and escapes.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1222–Subutai and Jebe conquer the Kuban steppe and crush the Cumans.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1223–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Muqali dies and the Mongol Empire loses control of Henan, central Shaanxi, and southeast Shandong ♦️Genghis Khan returns to Mongolia ♦️31, May—Battle of the Kalka River: Subutai and Jebe defeat the forces of Mstislav Mstislavich, Mstislav III of Kiev, Daniel of Galicia, Mstislav II Svyatoslavich, and Köten before sacking Novhorod-Siverskyi and heading back to Mongolia ♦️Mongol Empire sacks Sudak.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1224–Bulgars ambush Subutai and Jebe near Saqsin. ♦️Goryeo stops paying tribute.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1226, February—Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Mongol Empire seizes Khara-Khoto from Western Xia and sack cities across the Gansu Corridor ♦️Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Mongol Empire sacks Lingzhou ♦️December,1226 Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Genghis Khan crosses the Yellow River and defeats a Tangut.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1227–Mongol conquest of Western Xia: Emperor Mozhu of Western Xia surrenders to the Mongol Empire and is promptly executed; so ends the Western Xia ♦️Jochi dies and is succeeded by his son Batu Khan. ♦️August, 1227–Genghis Khan dies near the Jing River and Tolui becomes regent.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1229–13,September—Ögedei Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai near the Kherlen River ♦️Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria: Sunitay and Kukedey attack Bulgar outposts on the Ural River.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1230–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Doqolqu and Subutai attack Tong Pass and are defeated by Wanyan Heda.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1231–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Ögedei Khan and Tolui take Fengxiang. ♦️Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia: Chormaqan defeats Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, who escapes only to be killed by some random Kurd; so ends the Khwarazmian dynasty. ♦️Mongol invasions of Korea: Sartai subjugates Goryeo, however the Mongol overseers are immediately killed afterwards. ♦️"Thunder crash bombs" are employed by Jin troops in destroying a Mongol warship.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1232–Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Tolui invades Henan and Ögedei Khan pushes through the Tong Pass. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Tolui kills Wanyan Heda. ♦️Mongol siege of Kaifeng: Subutai lays siege to Kaifeng ♦️Mongol invasions of Korea: Sartai heads back to Goryeo and dies from an arrow. ♦️Mongol invasions of Georgia: Chormaqan subjugates Azerbaijan. ♦️Tolui is struck by sickness and dies. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: Reusable fire lance barrels made of durable paper are employed by Jin troops during the Mongol siege of Kaifeng.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1233–5 March,Mongol siege of Kaifeng: Kaifeng surrenders. ♦️Siege of Caizhou: Mongol Empire lays siege to Caizhou.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1234–9,February—Siege of Caizhou: Emperor Aizong of Jin abdicates to a distant relative, Hudun, who becomes Emperor Mo of Jin, and commits suicide; Emperor Mo of Jin is killed by the Mongols; so ends the Jin dynasty. ♦️Ögedei Khan announces his plans to conquer Goryeo, the Song dynasty, and Cumania.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1236–Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria: Subutai destroys Bolghar and takes Saqsin. ♦️Mongol invasions of Georgia: Chormaqan subjugates Georgia and Armenia.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1237–21 December-Siege of Ryazan: Batu, Orda, Güyük, and Möngke sack Ryazan and Suzdal. ♦️Large bombs requiring several hundred men to hurl using trebuchets are employed by Mongols in the siege of Anfeng (modern Shouxian, Anhui Province).
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1238–4 March—Battle of the Sit River: Mongol Empire kills Yuri II of Vladimir. ♦️Siege of Kozelsk: Batu struggles to take Kozelsk for two months before Kadan and Büri take it in three days. ♦️Mongol Empire conquers Crimea.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1239, 3 March—Mongol invasion of Rus': Mongol Empire sacks Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi. 1239,18,March-Mongol invasion of Rus': Mongol Empire sacks Chernihiv.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1240, 6,December-Siege of Kiev (1240): Mongol Empire sacks Kiev, Halych, and Vladimir-Suzdal. ♦️Mongol invasions of Tibet: Doorda Darkhan sacks Reting Monastery.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1241, 9, April—Battle of Legnica: Orda defeats the combined force of Henry II the Pious, Mieszko II the Fat, Sulisław of Cracow, and Boleslaus Děpoltic. 11,April—Battle of Mohi: Boroldai and Subutai defeat a combined army from the Kingdom of Hungary, Croatia, and Knights Templar. ♦️Mongol invasion of Europe: Kadan crosses the Danube. ♦️11,December 1241–Ögedei Khan dies on a hunting trip after lengthy drinking and his wife Töregene Khatun becomes regent.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1242–Mongol invasion of Europe: Mongol Empire forces Bulgaria to pay tribute. ♦️Mongol invasion of Europe: Mongol forces retreat after receiving news of Ögedei Khan's death; Batu Khan stays at the Volga River and his brother Orda Khan returns to Mongolia. ♦️Mongol invasions of Anatolia: Mongols take Erzurum. ♦️Chagatai Khan dies and his grandson Qara Hülegü succeeds him.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 26,June—1243-Battle of Köse Dağ: Baiju defeats Kaykhusraw II and subjugates the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1244–The Ayyubid dynasty gives tribute to the Mongols. ♦️Badr al-Din Lu'lu' of Mosul submits to the Mongol Empire.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1246–Mongol invasions of Anatolia: Mongols take Erzurum. ♦️Temüge tries to seize the throne without a kurultai but fails. ♦️24 August, 1246–Güyük Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai on the Kherlen River. ♦️Güyük Khan appoints Yesü Möngke as head of the Chagatai Khanate.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 20 April, 1248–Güyük Khan dies on his way to confront Batu Khan and his wife Oghul Qaimish becomes regent.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1,July-1251–Möngke Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai in the Khentii Mountains. ♦️Möngke Khan places his brothers Hulagu Khan and Kublai Khan in charge of West Asia and China, respectively. ♦️Möngke Khan appoints Qara Hülegü as head of the Chagatai Khanate, who dies soon after, and his wife Orghana becomes regent for her young son Mubarak Shah.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1252–Möngke Khan places Kublai Khan in charge of the invasion of the Dali Kingdom and Hulagu Khan the invasion of the middle east. ♦️Mongol forces depart from Shanxi and reach the Tao River. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol forces under the Chinese general Wang Dechen advance into Sichuan and occupy Lizhou. ♦️Kublai Khan advances with the main force towards the Dali Kingdom. ♦️Niccolò and Maffeo Polo set off from Venice for China. ♦️Mongol invasions of Tibet: Qoridai invades Tibet as far as Dangquka.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1253–Kublai Khan's forces set up headquarters on the Jinsha River in western Yunnan and march on Dali in three columns. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol forces occupy Lizhou. ♦️Kublai Khan meets Phagpa Lama and promotes the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 January-1254–The Dali Kingdom is conquered, although its dynasty remains in power, and the king, Duan Xingzhi, is later invested with the title of Maharajah by Möngke Khan; so ends the Dali Kingdom. ♦️Kublai Khan returns to Mongolia and leaves Subutai's son Uryankhadai in charge of campaigns against local Yi tribes. ♦️Kublai Khan starts building an independent power base in Henan and Jingzhao where Chinese-style government is implemented. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol raids on the northern Song border intensify. ♦️Mongol invasions of Korea: Jalairtai Qorchi plunders Goryeo.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1255–Mongol invasions of Korea: Mongol Empire takes Sinuiju and attacks coastal islands. ♦️Batu Khan dies and is succeeded by his son Sartaq Khan, who dies soon after, and then Ulaghchi.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1256–Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan declares war on the Song dynasty, citing imprisonment of Mongol envoys as casus belli. ♦️20, November—Hulagu Khan takes Alamut from the Assassins. ♦️Mongols defeat Kaykaus II at Aksaray and enthrone Kilij Arslan IV. ♦️Daniel of Galicia expels Mongol garrisons from his territory. ♦️Kublai Khan constructs a capital north of the Luan River.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1257–Uriyangkhadai, son of Subutai, pacifies Yunnan and returns to Gansu. ♦️Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Uriyangkhadai returns to Yunnan and invades the Trần dynasty of Đại Việt. ♦️Möngke Khan launches an investigation into Kublai Khan's activities and subjects officials in Henan and Shanxi to interrogation, executes Kublai's chief pacification officer in Shanxi, and imposes large levies on Shanxi. ♦️Ulaghchi dies and Berke, a Muslim, succeeds him.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 17,January-1258–Siege of Baghdad (1258): Hulagu Khan sends a Mongol contingent across the Tigris River which suffers a defeat against Aybak. ♦️18 January—Siege of Baghdad (1258): Baiju floods the enemy camp and attacks, driving them back. ♦️29, January—Siege of Baghdad (1258): Hulagu Khan lays siege to Baghdad. ♦️1,February—Siege of Baghdad (1258): Mongol siege weapons breach Baghdad's Ajami tower. ♦️3,February—Siege of Baghdad (1258): Mongol forces take Baghdad's walls. ♦️13, February—Siege of Baghdad (1258): Al-Musta'sim, his sons, and 3,000 dignitaries surrender. ♦️Siege of Baghdad (1258): Mongols sack Baghdad and Hulagu Khan takes the title of Ilkhan, meaning "obedient khan" ♦️20, February—Siege of Baghdad (1258): Mongols sack Baghdad and Hulagu Khan takes the title of Ilkhan, meaning "obedient khan" ♦️Siege of Baghdad (1258): Al-Musta'sim and his family are executed. ♦️Kublai Khan returns to Mongolia to placate his brother. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan's forces reach Gansu. ♦️Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Đại Việt recognizes Mongol suzerainty and Trần Thái Tông sends his son as hostage to the imperial court. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongols capture Chengdu. ♦️Buqa Temür takes Wasit. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan's forces reach Lizhou. ♦️Mongol invasions of Korea: Wonjong of Goryeo goes to the Mongol court as hostage.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 January,1259–Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan's forces take Yazhou. ♦️February—Siege of Diaoyu Castle: Möngke Khan's forces lay siege to Diaoyu Fortress. ♦️July—Siege of Diaoyu Castle: Möngke Khan calls off the siege of Diaoyu Fortress. ♦️August—Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Taghachar attacks Huainan. ♦️12,August—Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Möngke Khan dies from dysentry or a wound inflicted by a Song trebuchet, forcing Mongol campaigns throughout Eurasia and China to come to a halt. ♦️September—Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan's forces cross the Yangtze and lays siege to Ezhou, however he receives news of Möngke Khan's death and Ariq Böke's mobilization, forcing hm to withdraw and deal with his brother. ♦️Wonjong of Goryeo goes back to Goryeo to become ruler - henceforth becoming a Mongol tributary. ♦️Second Mongol invasion of Poland: Berke and Boroldai invade Poland and Daniel of Galicia flees, however his sons and brother Vasilko of Galicia join the Mongols to plunder Lithuania and Polish territories. ♦️Golden Horde elements in Bukhara rebel and Alghu suppresses them.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1260–January—Hulagu Khan takes Aleppo from An-Nasir Yusuf; so ends the Ayyubid dynasty. ♦️The Principality of Antioch submits to the Mongol Empire. ♦️2,February—Sack of Sandomierz (1260): Berke and Boroldai sack Sandomierz. ♦️5,May—Kublai Khan convenes a kurultai at Kaiping, which elects him as ruler of the Mongol Empire; so ends the centralized Mongol Empire. ♦️Toluid Civil War: Ariq Böke proclaims himself great khan of the Mongol Empire at Karakorum. ♦️6,June-Hulagu Khan receives news of Möngke Khan's death and retreats to Ahlat. ♦️26, July—Battle of Ain Jalut: Qutuz of the Mamluks advance into Palestine and drive the Mongols from Gaza. ♦️Hulagu Khan's son Yoshmut and commander Elege of the Jalayir take Mayyafaraqin and Mardin. ♦️August—Kitbuqa sacks Sidon. ♦️3,September—Battle of Ain Jalut: Qutuz of the Mamluks defeats Mongol forces under Kitbuqa and push them back to the Euphrates. ♦️10,December—First Battle of Homs: Baibars defeats a Mongol expedition into Syria. ♦️Toluid Civil War: Berke of the Golden Horde allies with Ariq Böke and declares war on Hulagu Khan. ♦️Toluid Civil War: Alghu, a grandson of Chagatai Khan, deposes Mubarak Shah, an appointee to the Chagatai Khanate of the Mongol Empire. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan's envoy Hao Jing proposes that the Song dynasty acknowledge Kublai as Son of Heaven in return for autonomy and gets jailed. ♦️Kublai Khan appoints Drogön Chögyal Phagpa as Imperial Preceptor. ♦️Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, from Bukhara, is appointed a commissioner of a district in north China. ♦️Kublai Khan issues three currencies but the paper chao, backed by silver, prevails; total value of paper money amounts to 73,352 silver ingots.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1261–Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan sends funds to Li Tan of Shandong to make war on the Song dynasty. ♦️Franks with blonde hair visit Kublai Khan's court at Shangdu. ♦️Badr al-Din Lu'lu' dies and his son Malik Salih kills all the Christians, causing a rebellion in Mosul and Cizre.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 22,February-1262–Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Mongol-allied warlord of Shandong, Li Tan, defects to the Song dynasty. ♦️August—Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Kublai Khan's Chinese generals Shi Tianze and Shi Chu crush Li Tan's forces and capture him; Li Tan is trampled to death by horses. ♦️Rebellions in Mosul and Cizre are suppressed. ♦️November—Hulagu Khan kills his vizier Saif-ud-Din Bitigchi and replaces him with Shams al-Din Juvayni. ♦️Berke–Hulagu war: Berke of the Golden Horde allies with the Mamluks and invades Azerbaijan. ♦️Hulagu Khan gives Khorasan and Mazandaran to his son Abaqa and Azerbaijan to his other son Yoshmut. ♦️Kublai Khan prohibits nomads' animals from roaming on farmlands. ♦️Kublai Khan appoints Ahmad Fanakati to the Central Secretariat to direct state finances.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 13,January-1263–Berke–Hulagu war: Berke defeats Hulagu Khan's army on the Terek River. ♦️Kublai Khan reestablishes the Privy Council to oversee the Imperial Bodyguards and Kheshig.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1264–Toluid Civil War: Kublai Khan defeats Ariq Böke. ♦️Kublai Khan founds the Supreme Control Commission to administer Tibet and Buddhists. ♦️Mongol invasion of Thrace: Berke attacks Thrace and secures the release of Kayqubad II.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 8,February-1265-Hulagu Khan dies and is succeeded by his son Abaqa Khan. ♦️Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty: Song dynasty and Mongol forces clash in Sichuan. ♦️Niccolò and Maffeo Polo arrive at Kublai Khan's court.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 9,July-1266-Kublai Khan appoints his son Nomukhan Beiping Wang (prince of the pacification of the north). ♦️Berke dies in Tbilisi and is succeeded by his grandnephew Mengu-Timur. ♦️Alghu dies and is succeeded by Mubarak Shah, who is deposed by Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq. ♦️Kublai Khan orders the construction of Daidu, known to the Chinese as Dadu, or Khanbalikh to the Turks.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1267–Drikung Kagyu rebels against the Supreme Control Commission and Kublai Khan dispatches forces to crush them. ♦️Kublai Khan orders the construction of an Imperial Ancestral Temple. ♦️Kublai Khan designates Xu Heng as chancellor of the Guozijian. ♦️Mengu-Timur grants Genoa Caffa.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1268–Battle of Xiangyang: Mongol forces under Aju lay siege to Xiangyang. ♦️The rebellion in Tibet is suppressed and Drogön Chögyal Phagpa is reinstated along with a Mongol pacification commissioner. ♦️Kublai Khan creates the "General Administration for the Supervision of Ortogh" (Muslim merchant association) to lend money at low interest to the ortogh.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1269–Kaidu–Kublai war: Kaidu, a grandson of Ögedei Khan, rebels against Kublai Khan. ♦️Sambyeolcho Rebellion: Im Yeon engineers a coup against Wonjong of Goryeo and Kublai Khan sends 3,000 troops to vanquish the rebels and reinstate Wonjong. ♦️Golden Horde assists Vladimir-Suzdal in evicting the Germans from Narva. ♦️Drogön Chögyal Phagpa invents the 41 letter 'Phags-pa script, which Kublai Khan designates as the state script. ♦️Niccolò and Maffeo Polo return to Europe.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 1270–Mongol invasions of Tibet: Mongol forces crush the rebellion in Tibet and implement regular administration. ♦️Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate invades the Ilkhanate but suffers defeat. ♦️Kublai Khan founds the Institute of Muslim Astronomy.
🔵🐺Year—————————Event🔵 ♦️1271-Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq dies and Kaidu takes control of the Chagatai Khanate, installing Negübei as puppet khan. ♦️Kublai Khan declares himself emperor of the Yuan dynasty and for the first time, annual sacrifices at the altars of Soil and Grain are done in the Chinese style; so ends the unified Mongol Empire. ... See MoreSee Less
🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵 Following are the Khanates as Genghis Khan assigned them: •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 🐺🔴 Empire of the Great Khan 🔵 🐺Ögedei Khan, as Great Khan, took most of Eastern Asia, including China; this territory later to comprise the Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan.
🐺🔴 Mongol homeland (present day Mongolia, including Karakorum): Tolui Khan, being the youngest son, received a small territory near the Mongol homeland, following Mongol custom.
🐺🔵Chagatai Khanate🔵 Chagatai Khan, Genghis Khan's second son, was given Central Asia and northern Iran.
🐺🔵Blue Horde🔵 to Batu Khan,and White Horde to Orda Khan, both were later combined into the Kipchak Khanate, or Khanate of the Golden Horde, under Toqtamysh. Genghis Khan's eldest son, Jochi, had received most of the distant Russia and Ruthenia. Because Jochi died before Genghis Khan, his territory was further split up between his sons. Batu Khan launched an invasion of Russia, and later Hungary and Poland, and crushed several armies before being summoned back by the news of Ögedei's death.
🐺🔵 1162,Temüjin was born in the Khentii mountains. When Temüjin was nine, his father Yesükhei was poisoned by Tatars, leaving Temüjin and his family destitute.
🐺🔴1184🔵 Temüjin's wife Börte was kidnapped by Merkits; he called on blood brother Jamukha and Wang Khan for aid, and they rescued her.
🐺🔴1185🔵 First son Jochi was born; leading to doubt about his paternity later among Genghis's children, because he was born shortly after Börte's rescue from the Merkits.
🐺🔴1190🔵 Temüjin united the Mongol tribes, became leader, and devised code of law Yassa.
🐺🔴1201🔵 Victory over Jamukha's Jadarans.
🐺🔴1202🔵 Adopted as Wang Khan's heir after successful campaigns against Tatars.
🐺🔴1203🔵 Victory over Wang Khan's Keraites. Wang Khan himself killed by accident by allied Naimans.
🐺🔴1204🔵 Victory over Naimans (all these confederations unite and become the Mongols).
🐺🔴1206🔵 Jamukha was killed. Temüjin was given the title Genghis Khan by his followers in a Kurultai (around 40 years of age).
🐺🔴1207–1210🔵 Genghis led operations against the Western Xia, which comprises much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet. Western Xia ruler submitted to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghurs also submitted peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire.
🐺🔴1211🔵 After the kurultai, Genghis led his armies against the Jin dynasty ruling northern China.
🐺🔴1215🔵 Beijing fell; Genghis Khan turned to west and the Khara-Kitan Khanate.
🐺🔴1219–1222🔵 Conquered Khwarezmid Empire.
🐺🔴1226🔵 Started the campaign against the Western Xia for forming coalition against the Mongols, the second battle with the Western Xia.
🐺🔴1227🔵 Genghis Khan died after conquering the Tangut people. Cause of death is uncertain. ... See MoreSee Less
🔴 The Most influential 100 kings 🔴 🔵(Proto-Mongols,Para-Mongols,Mongols)🔵 🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷🔷 🐺♦️1. Modun Chanyu-founder of Xiongnu empire 🐺♦️2. Huhanye -chanyu of Xiongnu empire 🐺♦️3. Muyun-Khui Jologui-chanyu of Xiongnu empire 🐺♦️4. Zhizhi-chanyu of Xiongnu empire 🐺♦️5. Attila-founder of Hun empire 🐺♦️6. Tanshihuai-founder of Xianbei empire 🐺♦️7. Murong Huang-founder of Former Yan dynasty 🐺♦️8. Murong Hong-founder of Western Yan dynasty 🐺♦️9. Murong Chui-founder of Later Yan dynasty 🐺♦️10. Murong De-founder of Southern Yan dynasty 🐺♦️11. Qifu Guoren-founder of Western Qin dynasty 🐺♦️12. Tufa Wugu-founder of Southern Liang dynasty 🐺♦️13. Xiaojing-founder of Eastern Wei dynasty 🐺♦️14. Wen-founder of Western Wei dynasty 🐺♦️15. Shegu-Founder of Northern Wei dynasty(Tuba wei) 🐺♦️16. Tuyuhun-founder of Tuyuhun dynasty 🐺♦️17. Muyun-Khui Jologui-founder of Muyun Dynasty 🐺♦️18. Mugulu-founder of Rouran khanate 🐺♦️19. Tatar-khagan of Rouran khanate 🐺♦️20. Bayan-founder of Nirun-Avar khanate 🐺♦️21. Yelü Abaoji khagan-founder of Khitan empire 🐺♦️22. Yelu Dashi-Founder of Kara Khitan Khanate 🐺♦️23. Khabul khan-founder of Khamug Mongol 🐺♦️24.Ambughai-khan of Khamug Mongol 🐺♦️25.Hotula-khan of Khamug Mongol 🐺♦️26. Genghis khan-founder of the Mongol empire (Great Mongol) 🐺♦️27. Ogedei khan-the second great khagan of Mongol empire(Great Mongol) 🐺♦️28. Guyuk khan-the third khagan of Mongol empire(Great Mongol) 🐺♦️29. Mongke khan-the fourth khagan of Mongol empire(Great Mongol empire) 🐺♦️30. Ariq Boke-the fifth khagan of Mongol empire(Great Mongol empire) 🐺♦️31. Khubilai –founder of Yuan empire 🐺♦️32. Temur khan-khagan of Yuan empire 🐺♦️33. Yesun timur-khagan of Yuan empire 🐺♦️34. Jochi-khan of Ulus of Jochi 🐺♦️35. Batu-founder of Golden Horde 🐺♦️36. Berke-khagan of Golden Horde 🐺♦️37. Orda-founder of white orda 🐺♦️38. Sartaq-Khan of Blue Orda 🐺♦️39. Mengu-Timur-khagan of Golden Horde 🐺♦️40. Uzbek-khagan of Golden Horde 🐺♦️41. Jani Beg-khagan of Golden Horde 🐺♦️42. Tokhtamysh-Khagan of Golden horde 🐺♦️43. Khochu-khan of white horde 🐺♦️44. Chimtay-khan of white horde 🐺♦️45. Mahmud bin Kuchuk-founder of Astrakhan khanate 🐺♦️46. Ahmed bin Kuchuk-khagan of Great Horde 🐺♦️47. Ulugh Muhammad-founder of Kazan khanate 🐺♦️48. Edigu-founder of Nogai Horde 🐺♦️49. Shayban-founder of Shaybanid empire 🐺♦️50. Khuchum khan-khagan of Sibir khanate 🐺♦️51. Abu’l khayr khan-khagan of Shaybanid 🐺♦️52. Khudayar beg-founder of Manghit Dynasty 🐺♦️53. Haci Giray-founder of Crimean khanate 🐺♦️54. Zhanibek-founder of Kazakh Khanate 🐺♦️55. Hulegu-founder of Ilkhanate 🐺♦️56. Abaga-khagan of ilkhanate 🐺♦️57. Arghun-khagan of ilkhanate 🐺♦️58. Ghazan-khagan of Ilkhanate 🐺♦️59. Oljaitu-khagan of ilkhanate 🐺♦️60. Amir Chupan-founder of Chobanids 🐺♦️61. Hasan Buzurg-Founder of Jalairid 🐺♦️62. Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah-founder of Injuids 🐺♦️63. Mirza Amir Basri Arghun-Beg of Arghun dynasty 🐺♦️64. Chagatai khan-founder of Chagatai khanate 🐺♦️65. Baraq-khagan of Chagatai khanate 🐺♦️66. Esen Buqa-khagan of Chagatai khanate 🐺♦️67. Kebek-khagan of Chagatai khanate 🐺♦️68. Tuqhluqh Timur-khagan of Moghustan 🐺♦️69. Bayan Quli-khagan of Moghulstan 🐺♦️70. Amir Timur,Tamerlane-Founder of Timurid empire 🐺♦️71. Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir-Khagan of Timurid empire 🐺♦️72. Khalil –khagan of Timurid empire 🐺♦️73. Shahrukh Mirza-khagan of Timurid empire 🐺♦️74. Muhammad bin Baysonqor-Sultan of Khurasan 🐺♦️75. Babur-Founder of Great Moghul empire 🐺♦️76. Akbar-khagan ofGreat Moghul empire 🐺♦️77. Shah Jahan-khagan of Great Moghul empire 🐺♦️78. Aurangzeb-khagan of Great Moghul empire 🐺♦️79. Abdul-Latif Mirza-Sultan of Transoxiana 🐺♦️80. Gunashiri-founder of Kara Del khanate 🐺♦️81. Al –Adil Kitbugha-10th sultan of Mamluk Sultanate 🐺♦️82. Toghan tayisi-Tayisi of 4 Oirats 🐺♦️83. Taisun khan-khagan of Northern Yuan dynasty 🐺♦️84. Esen Taishi- khagan of Northern Yuan dynasty 🐺♦️85. Dayan Khan-great khagan of Northern Yuan dynasty 🐺♦️86. Tumen Jasagtu khan-khagan of Northern Yuan dynasty 🐺♦️87. Orug Temur khan-khagan of Northern Yuan dynasty 🐺♦️88. Ligdan-khagan of Northern Yuan dynasty 🐺♦️89. Tsogtu Taij-Taij of khalkha 🐺♦️90. Khara khul-great leader of 4 Oirats 🐺♦️91. Baatar Khung-Taiji-leader of 4 Oirats 🐺♦️92. Galdan Boshigtu-founder of Dzungar empire 🐺♦️93. Tsewang Rabtan-khagan of Dzungar empire 🐺♦️94. Galdan Tseren Khan-khagan of Dzungar empire 🐺♦️95. Gushi khan-Founder of Khoshut khanate 🐺♦️96. Altan khan-founder of Khotgoid khanate 🐺♦️97. Kho Orluk-founder of Kalmyk khanate 🐺♦️98. Ayuka khan-great khagan of Kalmyk khanate 🐺♦️99. Ubashi-khagan of Kalmyk khanate 🐺♦️100. Bogd-khagan of Bogd Khanate. 🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺🐺
🐺🐺🐺 30 Out of 217 Uzbek's tribes-1/7 is The Mongols' descendants.
🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔵🔴🔵🔴 🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔴🔵🔵🔴🔵🔴 🐺1. Khongirad(Kongurat)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺2. Khiad(Kiyat)-Nirun Mongol 🐺3. Mangud(Mangit)-Nirun Mongol 🐺4. Naiman 🐺5. Nokhos(Nikuz)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺6. Alchin Tatar 🐺7. Bayads(Bayaut)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺8. Arlud(Arlut)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺9. Barlas-Nirun Mongol 🐺10. Budaad(Budai)-Nirun Mongol 🐺11. Burgud(Burkut)-Oirat Mongol 🐺12. Buriad(Buryat)-Oirat Mongol 🐺13. Jalair(Jalair) 🐺14. Juryad(Jurat)-Nirun Mongol 🐺15. Khalimag(Kalmak)-Oirat Mongol 🐺16. Khatigan(Katagan)-Nirun Mongol 🐺17. Geniges(Keneges)-Nirun Mongol 🐺18. Khereid(Kerait) 🐺19. Kurlaud(Kurlat)-Oirat Mongol 🐺20. Mergid(Merkit) 🐺21. Mundus(Munduz)-Oirat Mongol 🐺22. Oglan 🐺23. Oirad(Oirat)-Oirat Mongol 🐺24. Ongud(Ongut) 🐺25. Suldus(Sulduz)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺26. Tatar(Tatar) 🐺27. Ushun(uishun)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺28. Uryut(Uriuz)-Darilgan Mongol 🐺29. Khitan(Khitai) 🐺30. Tangud(Tangut) ... See MoreSee Less
❤️❤️❤️ Main Horde and western half ❤️❤️❤️ 🐺••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••🐺
🐺🔵1. Genghis Khan 21Years,1206-1227 founded Mongol empire, got about as far as the Volga. 🐺🔵Chinggis khan’s Generals Subutai and Jebe 1219-1223 led raid clockwise around the Caspian, defeated Russians at Battle of Kalka River. 🐺🔵2.Jochi 8 Years,1218-1226 son of Genghis khan , given west, did little, died before Genghis, most khans were his descendants. 🐺🔵3.Batu Khan 28 Years ,1227-1255 son of Jochi, 1236-42 conquered Russia and Ukraine, 1250 founded capital Sarai (city) on lower Volga. 🐺🔵3a. Orda Khan elder brother of Batu khan, held east. See A Below 🐺🔵3b. Shiban , brother of Batu khan, held area north of Aral/Caspian between Batu and Orda, descendants (Shaybanids) 🐺🔵3c. Tokh-timur,brother of Batu Khan, descendants somewhat important 🐺🔵4 Sartaq Khan 1 Year,1256 son of Batu Khan, most of short reign spent travelling to Mongolia, possibly poisoned by Breke. 🐺🔵5 Ulaghchi 1 Year,1257, son or brother of Sartaq khan, 10 years old, possibly poisoned by or yielded to Berke. 🐺🔵6. Berke 9 Years,1257-1266 brother of Batu Khan, broke with Hulagu Khan of Persia and allied with Mamluks, died while fighting Hulagu's son, first Muslim khan but did not to push religion (see 11.) 🐺🔵Warlord Nogai Khan 1266-1300 grandson of Jochi’s 7th son, under Batu guarded western frontier, invaded Poland, helped 6 fight Hulagu, 1265 invaded Balkans, 1266 de facto ruler west of the Dnieper, c 1280 killed Bulgarian khan, 1285 he and Talabuga invaded Hungary, 1287 raided Poland, then Circassia, killed in battle by Toqta, son became khan of Bulgaria 🐺🔵7. Mengu-Timur 14 Years,1266-1280 grandson of Batu Khan, non-Muslim, established trade with Genoese at Kaffa. 🐺🔵8. Tode Mongke 7 Years,1280-1287 brother of Mengu Timur, pious Muslim, weak, removed by Nogai. 🐺🔵9. Talabuga 4 Years,1287-91 great-grandson of Batu Khan, enthroned by Nogai and fought along side him, began to assert himself so removed, then killed by Nogai. 🐺🔵10. Toqta 23 Years,1291-1312 son of Mengu Timur, enstalled by Nogai, 1300 killed Nogai, quarreled with Genoese at Kaffa. 🐺🔵11 Uzbeg Khan 27 Years, 1314-41 grandson of Mengu Timur,first to actively support islam , fought and made peace with Persia, appointed Ivan Kalita chief tax collector.The Black Death would have hit the steppe about this time, but there are few records. 🐺🔵12 Tini Beg 1 Years, 1341-42 son of Uzbeg Khan, probably killed by jani Beg. 🐺🔵13 Jani Beg 15 Years, 1342-57 brother of Tini Beg, lost land in the west, took and lost Tabriz, his 1347 siege of Kaffa spread the black death to Europe 🐺🔵14 Berdi Beg 2 Years,1357-59 son and possibly murderer of Jani Beg, killed by Qulpa. 🐺🔵15 Qulpa 1 Years, 1359-60 murdered Berdi Beg, murdered by Nawruz Beg. 🐺🔵16. Nawruz Beg 1360-61 🔹X 1359-1378 According to Baumer between Berdi and Tokhtamish there were 19 khans, at least 8 puppets of Mamai. First part of this article lists 14 of them with no linked articles except Qulpa and Nawruz 🔹Warlord Mamai 1355-1380 started in Crimea, supported various pretenders, lost territory to Lithuania, Moscow stopped paying tribute, 1380 defeated by Russians at Battle of Kulikovo, same year defeated by Tokhtamysh, probably fled to Kaffa and poisoned by the Genoese there. 🔹Tokhtamysh 1380-1399 L. below, came from east and united two halves of the Horde, driven out by Edigu as general for Tamerlane.
Between 1242 and 1380 the eastern and western halves of the horde were generally separate, the dividing line being somewhere north of the Caspian. The relation between the two is not clear, but we do not hear of any conflicts, except for I. and L. below. The western khans had a capital at Serai on the lower Volga while the eastern khans had capitals or winter camps on the Syr Darya, especially Sighnaq. Most rulers of the eastern half are poorly documented. 🐺🔵A. Orda Khan 28 Years, 1227-55 held east after his younger brother Batu (3) conquered west, also general on western invasions 🐺🔵B. Qun Quran 29 Years, 1251-c1280 fourth son of A, little information (Baumer has Qongqiran >1255-<77) 🐺🔵C. Köchü 22 Years, 1280-1302 grandson of A, peaceful reign (Baumer: Qonichi c1277-<1299) 🐺🔵D Bayan (khan) 7 Years, 1302-09 son of C, fought his cousin Kobluk/Kupalak who allied with Kaidu to the east (Baumer has <1299-<1312) 🐺🔵E Sasibuqa 6 Years, 1309-15 son of Bayan khan, resisted Uzbeg Khan (11 above). (Baumer has Sasi Buqa <1312-1320/21) 🐺🔵F Ilbasan 5 Years, 1310/15-1320 son of Bayan khan or Sasibuqa, probably gained land in southeast (Otrar) recognized overlordship of Uzbek (Baumer has Izran 1320/21-?) 🐺🔵G Mubarak Khwaja 24 Years, 1320-44 brother of F, little information (Baumer has ?-1344) The Black Death would have hit the steppe about this time, but there are few records. 🐺🔵H. Chimtay 16 Years, 1344-1360 son of F, little information (Baumer: 1344?-61) 🐺🔵I. Urus Khan 15 Years, 1361-1376 son of H uncle of Tokhtamysh,fought Tokhtamysh, then Tamerlane, 1375 briefly held western wing of the Golden Horde (Baumer:1361-74/75) 🐺🔵J. Toqtaqiya 1 Year, 1377 son of Urus Khan, two-month reign, Baumer has him defeated by Tokhtamysh. 🐺🔵K. Timur-Malik 1 Year, 1377-78 son of Urus Khan , killed by Tokhtamysh. 🐺🔵L.Tokhtamysh 21 Year, 1378-1399, a great man but more warlord than ruler, possibly descendant of Tokh Timur., rebelled against his uncle Urus Khan., fled to Tamerlane who in 1378 made him khan of the Horde, 1380 crossed Volga and defeated Mamai joining 2 halves of the Golden Horde, burned Moscow to avenge Mamai's defeat at Kulikovo, broke with Tamerlane, captured Tabriz and withdrew, Tamerlane defeated him on the Volga in 1391 and on the Terek in 1395 and razed his cities north of the Caspian, fled to Lithuania, defeated by Tamerlane's general Edigu, fled to Siberia and was killed by Edigu's men.
🐺🐺⚫️⚫️⚫️ After Tokhtamysh ⚫️⚫️⚫️🐺🐺 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
Following Tokhtamysh there was no longer a clear distinction between east and west. For the first twenty years power was held by descendents of Urus Khan and Tohktamysh and by the warlord Edigu. There was then a confused period, followed by a several long reigns. The last khan was deposed in 1502. The Golden horde broke up as follows: before 1400: Lithuania expanded as far east as Kiev, ?: Kursk as Lithuanian vassal, 1430: land east of the Ural held by Abul Khayr, 1438: Kazan (by Dawlat Berdi), 1449: Crimea (family of 3c), 1452: Kasimov as Russian vassal (family of 3c), 1465: Kazakh khanate (sons of T12), 1466: Astrakhan (T15), 1480: Russia, before 1490?: Sibir. The steppe nomads then became organized as the Nogai Horde.
🐺🔴T1—: Tokhtamysh = L. above
🐺🔴Warlord Edigu 1396-1410 ruled Volga-Ural area, 1399 defeated Tolhtamysh, 1406 his men killed Tokhtamysh, 1407 raided Volga Bulgaria, 1408 raided Russia, 1410 dethroned, fled east, returned to Serai, 1419 killed by Tokhtamysh's sons . According to Baumer in 1410 he was driven out by one of his sons after which 9 khans followed in 9 years. 🐺🔴T2:—Temür Qutlugh 1397-99 son of Timur Malik, real power was Edigu, enthroned after Tokhtamysh's defeat (Baumer: enthroned by Tokhtamysh), killed by Tokhtamysh's son 🐺🔴T3:—Shadi Beg 1388-1407 brother of Temür Qutlugh, enthroned and dethroned by Edigu, died in Caucasus, ruled west while uncle Koirijak, grandson of Urus Khan, ruled east. 🐺🔴T4:—Pulad 1407-1410 brother or son of Temür Qutlugh, recalled Edigu from siege of Moscow, dethroned by Temur Khan. 🐺🔴T5:—Temur Khan 1410-1412 son of Temür Qutlugh, dominated by Edigu, little information. 🐺🔴T6:—Jalal al-Din Khan ibn Tokhtamysh 1411-1412(cf above dates) eldest son ofTokhtamysh , drove out Temur Khan, killed Pulad, ruled at Serai with Lithuanian support, murdered by Kerim Berdi (Howorth: treacherously killed during battle by his brother Kebek Khan). 🐺🔴T7:— Kerim Berdi 2 Years, 1412-1414 son of Tolhtamysh, anti-Lithuanian, killed pro-Lithuanian counter-khan Betsa Pulad 🐺🔴T8:— Kebek Khan 1 Year, 1414, son of Tokhtamysh , little information, struck coins in Astrakhan 🐺🔴T9:— Chokra Khan ibn Akmyl 3 Years, 1414–17, Howorth,:Chekre Khan, relative of Edigu or family of Urus Khan, he and servant Johann Schiltberger went to Siberia after Edigu (earliest European report of Siberia), enthroned by Edigu, reigned 9 months(sic) and driven out by Ulugh Muhammad. 🐺🔴T10:— Yeremferden 1417-1419 son of Tokhtamysh, no good information (Howorth calls him Jebbarberdei and puts him before Chokra Khan ibn Akmyl. 🐺🔴T10a?:— Howorth: Seyid Ahmed, followed Chekre, boy who reigned 45 days, see T-14 🐺🔴T10b?:— Howorth: Derwish, many coins but no documents 🐺🔴T10c?:— Howorth: T8 Kibek again, enthroned by T12, held west and in 1422 fought T13 who held the east 🐺🔴T10d?:— Howorth: Kadirberdi, son of Tolhtamysh, killed by Edigu, by one account Edigu also killed. 🐺🔴T11:— Dawlat Berdi 1419-21, son of Yeremferden, grandson of Tokhtamysh, 1421:defeated by Barqa(Golden Horde), 1428–32: established in Crimea, unsuccessfully attacked by Ulug Muhammad. 🐺🔴T12:— Ulugh Muhammad 1419-1422, ancestry uncertain, held Serai, 1420 expelled by Baraq (Golden Horde)1422 he and Dawlat Berdi defeated by Baraq(Golden Horde), Howorth says restored, long reign, 1437 expelled by Kuchuk Muhammad 1438 founded Khanate of Kazan. Baumer has 1419-39 with interruptions and Dawlat Berdi ,Baraq (Golden Horde) as rivals. 🐺🔴T13:— Baraq (Golden Horde) 1422-27 grandson of Koirijak (see T3), great-grandson of I, defeated above two, sons Gerey and Zhanibek Khan founded Kazakh khanate (Howorth: defeated Ulug Muhammad in 1422, near Samarkand defeated Ulugh Beg, son of Shah Rokh (sic, hard to find in other sources), but during this campaign T12? regained power in the west) 🐺🔴T13a?:— Abu'l-Khayr Khan 1428-1468, Shaybanid, started in Sibir and gained land south to the Syr Darya, realm broke up after death. Relation to Golden Horde unclear. 🐺🔴T14:— Sayid Ahmad I 1427/33-1455 (sic) Howorth, pp292–305: probably =T9a, ruled between Dnieper and Don, joint authority with Kuchuk Muhammad, raided Russia, in 1455 attacked by Hacı I Giray of Crimea, fled to Kiev, captured by Lithuanians and 'died miserably' at Kovno. 🐺🔴T15:— Küchük Muhammad 1435-1459 (sic) Howorth pp292–305: son of Temur Khan, held Sarai, joint authority with Sayid Ahmad l, in 1438 he drove out Ulug Muhammad, who must have been west of Azov since T15 marched past Azov where he was seen by Giosafat Barbaro 🐺🔴T16:— Mahmud bin Küchük 1459-1465, son of Kuchuk Muhammad, became Khan of Astrakhan 🐺🔴T17:— Ahmed Khan bin Küchük 1465-1481 son of Kuchuk Muhammad, lost Russia, killed by khan of Sibir and Nogais. 🐺🔴T18:— Seyid Ahmed II 1481-1501?, son of Ahmad Khan Bin Kuchuk, jointly with Murtada Khan,Sheikh Ahmad, fought Crimea, fled to Russia. 🐺🔴T19:— Murtada Khan 1481-1500? son of Ahmad Khan Bin Kuchuk, jointly with Seyid Ahmad II,Sheikh Ahmad, captured by Crimea, rescued by Seyid Ahmad II 🐺🔴T20:— Sheikh Ahmed 1481-1502, son of Ahmad Khan Bin Kuchuk, jointly with Syed Ahmad II,Murtada khan, last khan, fought Crimea, 1502 prisoner in Lithuania, 1527 released and took power in Astrakhan.
🐺🔴Khaan (Khagan)Meaning the supreme ruler of the Mongol Empire.
🐺🔴Noyon— meaning "King of a State", a ruler of a vassal/tributary state under the Mongol Empire.
🐺🔴Jinong— meaning "Crown Prince", the heir apparent of the Great Khaan. During the Yuan dynasty, the Jinong resided in Karakorum and administered ceremonial events.
🐺🔴Khan Khuu— meaning "Prince". 🐺🔴Mirza a Persian term meaning "Prince".
🔴🔴🔴🔴Mongol Military ranks🔴🔴🔴🔴
🐺🔵Tumetu-iin Noyan— meaning "Commander of a Tümen". A tümen was a military unit of 10,000 troops. There were initially only nine tümens in the Mongol Empire in 1206, but by 1368 there were 40 Mongol tümens and four Oirat tümens.
🐺🔵Mingghan-u Noyan— meaning "Commander of a Mingghan". A mingghan was a military unit of 1,000 troops.
🐺🔵Jagutu-iin Darga— meaning "Commander of a Zuut". A zuut was a military unit of 100 troops.
🐺🔵Arban-u Darga— meaning "Commander of an Aravt". An aravt was a military unit of 10 troops.
🐺🔵Cherbi — A title for a Kheshig commander.
🐺🔵Bey— A Turkish term meaning "Chieftain".
🔴🔵🔴⚫️ Mongol Female titles ⚫️🔴🔵🔴
🐺🔴Khatun— meaning "Empress" or "Queen".
🐺🔵Begum — A Turkish term used to refer to the wife or daughter of a bey.
🐺🔴Khaan (Khagan)Meaning the supreme ruler of the Mongol Empire.
🐺🔴Noyon meaning "King of a State", a ruler of a vassal/tributary state under the Mongol Empire.
🐺🔴Jinong meaning "Crown Prince", the heir apparent of the Great Khaan. During the Yuan dynasty, the Jinong resided in Karakorum and administered ceremonial events.
🐺🔴Khan Khuu meaning "Prince". 🐺🔴Mirza a Persian term meaning "Prince".
🔴🔴🔴Mongol Military ranks🔴🔴🔴
🐺🔵Tumetu-iin Noyan meaning "Commander of a Tümen". A tümen was a military unit of 10,000 troops. There were initially only nine tümens in the Mongol Empire in 1206, but by 1368 there were 40 Mongol tümens and four Oirat tümens.
🐺🔵Mingghan-u Noyan meaning "Commander of a Mingghan". A mingghan was a military unit of 1,000 troops.
🐺🔵Jagutu-iin Darga meaning "Commander of a Zuut". A zuut was a military unit of 100 troops.
🐺🔵Arban-u Darga meaning "Commander of an Aravt". An aravt was a military unit of 10 troops.
🐺🔵Cherbi — A title for a Kheshig commander.
🐺🔵Bey— A Turkish term meaning "Chieftain".
🔵🔴⚫️ Mongol Female titles ⚫️🔴🔵
🐺🔴Khatun meaning "Empress" or "Queen".
🐺🔵Begum a Turkish term used to refer to the wife or daughter of a bey.
Chinggis Khan Statue Complex is a 131-foot (40 m) tall statue of Genghis Khan on horseback, on the bank of the Tuul River at Tsonjin Boldog (54 km (33.55 mi) east of the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar), where according to legend, he found a golden whip. The statue is symbolically pointed east towards his birthplace. It is on top of the complex, a visitor centre, itself 10 meters (33 ft) tall, with 36 columns representing the 36 khans from Chinggis to Ligden Khan. It was designed by——————————-sculptor D. Erdenebileg and, architect J. Enkhjargal. ... See MoreSee Less
🐺 🔷 Amir Timur 🐺 🔹 Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir (ruled 1405–1407) 🐺 🔹Khalil Sultan 🐺 🔹Shahrukh Mirza 🐺 🔹Ulugh Beg 🐺 🔹 Abdal-Latif Mirza 🐺 🔹Abdallah Mirza 🐺 🔹Sultan Muhammad bin Baysonqor 🐺 🔹Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza 🐺 🔹Sultan Ahmed Mirza 🐺 🔹Sultan Mahmud Mirza 🐺 🔹 Mirza Shah Mahmud 🐺 🔹 Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah 🐺 🔹 Abu Sa'id Mirza 🐺 🔹Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara 🐺 🔹 Yadgar Muhammad Mirza (ruled 1469–1470) 🐺 🔹 Badi' al-Zaman Mirza
🔵⚫️🔴 Timurid Rulers 🔴⚫️🔵
🐺 ♦️ Qaidu bin Pir Muhammad bin Jahāngīr 808–811 AH 🐺 ♦️ Abu Bakr bin Mīrān Shāh 1405–1407 (807–809 AH) 🐺 ♦️ Pir Muhammad bin Umar Sheikh 807–812 AH 🐺 ♦️ Rustam 812–817 AH 🐺 ♦️ Sikandar 812–817 AH 🐺 ♦️ Alaudaullah 851 AH 🐺 ♦️ Abu Bakr bin Muhammad 851 AH 🐺 ♦️ Sultān Muhammad 850–855 AH 🐺 ♦️ Muhammad bin Hussayn 903–906 AH 🐺 ♦️ Abul A'la Fereydūn Hussayn 911–912 AH 🐺 ♦️ Muhammad Mohsin Khān 911–912 AH 🐺 ♦️ Muhammad Zamān Khān 920–923 AH 🐺 ♦️ Shāhrukh II bin Abu Sa'id 896–897 AH 🐺 ♦️ Ulugh Beg Kābulī 873–907 AH 🐺 ♦️ Sultān Uways 1508–1522 (913–92 AH)
🐺 Borte Chino (Grey Wolf) and his wife was 🦌🦙Gua Maral (White Doe) 🐺▪ 1. Bat Tsagan - was the son of Borte Chino and Gua Maral 🐺▪ 2. Tamacha - was the son of Bat Tsagan 🐺▪ 3. Horichar Mergen - was the son of Tamacha 🐺▪ 4. Uujim Buural - was the son of Horichar Mergen 🐺▪ 5. Sali Hachau - was the son of Uujim Buural 🐺▪ 6. Yehe Nidun - was the son of Sali Hachau 🐺▪ 7. Sem Sochi - was the son of Yehe Nidun 🐺▪ 8. Harchu - was the son of Sem Sochi 🐺▪ 9.Borjigidai Mergen - was the son of Harchu, and his wife was Mongoljin Gua 🐺▪ 10. Torogoljin Bayan - was the son of Borjigidai Mergen, and his wife was Borogchin Gua 🐺▪ 11. Duva Sokhor - was the first son of Torogoljin Bayan 🐺▪ 11. Dobun Mergen - was the second son of Torogoljin Bayan, and his wife was Alan Gua 🐺▪ 12. Belgunudei - was the first son of Dobun Mergen and Alan Gua • 12. Bugunudei - was the second son of Dobun Mergen and Alan Gua • 12. Bukhu Khatagi - was the first son of Alan Gua, conceived after the death of Dobun Mergen • 12. Bukhatu Salji - was the second son of Alan Gua, conceived after the death of Dobun Mergen • 12. Bodonchar Munkhag - was the third son of Alan Gua, conceived after the death of Dobun Mergen 🐺▪ 13. Habich Baghatur - was the son of Bodonchar Munkhag 🐺▪ 14. Menen Tudun - was the son of Habich Baghatur 🐺▪ 15. Hachi Hulug - was the son of Menen Tudun 🐺▪ 16. Khaidu - was the son of Hachi Hulug 🐺▪ 17. Baishinkhor Dogshin - was the first son of Khaidu 🐺▪ 18. Tumbinai Setsen - was the son of Baishinkhor Dogshin 🐺▪ 19. Khabul Khan - was the first son of Tumbinai Setsen, and Khan of the Khamag Mongol (1120–1149) 🐺▪ 20. Ohinbarhag - was the first son of Khabul Khan 🐺• 20. Bartan Baghatur - was the second son of Khabul Khan 🐺▪ 21. Mengitu Hiyan - was the first son of Bartan Baghatur 🐺• 21. Negun Taiji - was the second son of Bartan Baghatur 🐺❤️• 21. Yesugei - was the third son of Bartan Baghatur, and his wife was Hoelun 🐺❤️▪ 22. Temujin (Genghis Khan) - was the first son of Yesugei and Hoelun.
Монголын төрийг барьж байсан 37 их хаадын товч мэдээллийг Та бүхэндээ хүргэж байна.
1. Чингис хаан
1162 оны хар морин жил төрж, 1227 оны улаагчин гахай жил тэнгэрт халив. Тэрээр тархай бутархай ханлиг овог аймгуудыг нэгтгэж их Монгол улсыг байгуулсан билээ. Өөрөөр хэлбэл 1206 оноос Монгол улсын түүх эхэлдэг. Хаан 65 насалжээ.
2. Өгөөдэй хаан 1187 оны улаагчин морин жил төрж 1241 оны цагаагчин үхэр жил таалал төгсчээ. Их хааныг өөд болсон хойно төрийн хэргийг түр хамаарч байгаад 1228 оны цагаагчин үхэр жил Өгөөдэй хаан ор суусан байна. Хаан 54 насалжээ. Тэрээр Чингисийн гутгаар хүү юм. Өгөөдэй хааны төр барьсан жилүүдэд Монголын Эзэнт Гүрний хил хязгаар хүч чадал улам нэмэгдсэн бөгөөд Алтан улсыг унагаж Өмнөд Сүн улстай дайн зарласан юм.Өгөөдэй Хаан 1230 онд Чормаганаар удирдуулсан 30 000 хүнтэй арми илгээж баруун зүгийн лалын улсуудыг дахин цохиж улмаар Перс,Армен,Гүржийг эзэлж Кавказыг даван Европын зүрхэнд тулж очсон юм…Өгөөдэй Хааны үед Чингэсийн гарамгай жанжид болох Зэв,Сүбээдэй нарын цэрэг Оросын цэргийг бут цохиж Европыг айлган чичрүүлж байсан юм.
3. Гүег хаан 1206 оны улаагчин барс жил төрж 1248 оны шар бичин жил таалал тєгсчээ. Хаан 42 насалсан бөгөөд Өгөөдэйн ахмад хүү юм. 1246 оны улаан морин жилийн Их хуралдайгаар хаан ширээнд өргөмжлөгдөн суув. Гүег хаан олон чухал үйл хэрэг бүтээсний нэг нь 1247 онд хүн амын тооллогыг анх удаа хийжээ. Гадаад бодлогын хувьд эцэг хааны захиасыг даган улс гүрний газар нутгийг тэлэх үйлсийг үргэлжлүүлэв. Гүег хаан 1248 оны шар бичин жил нас эцэслэв.
4. Мөнх хаан 1208 оны шар луу жил төрж 1258 оны шаргачин хонин жил тэнгэрт халив. 1251 оны цагаагчин гахай жил хаан ор суусан ба 50 насалжээ. Тэрээр Чингисийн отгон хүү Тулуйн ахмад хүү нь юм.
5. Хубилай хаан 1215 оны хөхөгчин гахай жил төрж 1260 оны цагаан бичин жил хаан ширээнд суусан ба 1294 хөх морин жил таалал төгссөн. Тэрээр Мөнхийн дүү бөгөөд 79 насалсан аж.
6. Өлзийтөмөр хаан 1265 оны хөхөгчин үхэр жил төрж 1307 оны улаагчин хонин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1294 оны хөх морин жил хаан ор суужээ. Тэрээр 42 насалсан ба Хубилайн ахмад хүү Чингэмийн гутгаар хүү юм.
7. Хайсан хүлэг хаан 1281 оны могой жил төрж 1311 оны цагаагчин гахай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1308 оны шар бичин жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 30 насалсан ба Чингэмийн 2-р хүү Дарамбалын хүү юм.
8. Аюурбарбад буянт хаан 1285 оны хөхөгчин тахиа жил төрж 1320 оны цагаан бичин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1312 оны цагаагчин гахай жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 35 насалжээ. Тэрээр дарамбалын гутгаар хүү юм.
9. Шадбал гэгээн хаан 1303 оны хөхөгчин туулай жил төрж 1324 оны харагчин гахай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1321 оны цагаан бичин жил хаан ор суусан байна. Хаан 21 насалжээ. Тэрээр Буянтын хүү юм.
10. Есөнтөмөр хаан 1276 оны харагчин могой жил төрж 1328 оны шар луу жил таалал төгсчээ. 1324 оны харагчин гахай жил хаан ор суусан ба хаан 52 насалсан . Чингэмийн хүү Гамалын 2-р хүү байжээ.
11. Ашидхэв хаан 1320 оны цагаан бичин жил төржээ. Энэ хааны хувь заяа эцэстээ хэрхэсэн нь тодорхойгvй. 1328 оны шар луу жилийн сvvл сард хаан ор сууж дөнгөж нэг сар болоод огцорсон мэдээ байна. Тэрээр Есөнтөмөрийн ахмад хүү юм.
12. Хүслэн хаан 1300 оны цагаан хулгана жил төрж 1329 оны шаргачин могой жил таалал төгсчээ. 1329 онд хаан ор сууж 29 насандаа нас нөгчсөн аж. Тэрээр Хайсаны ахмад хүү юм.
13. Төв (төгс) төмөр хаан 1304 оны хөх луу жил төрж 1332 оны хар бичин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1329 оны шаргачин могой жил хаан ор суусан ба 28 насалсан байна. Тэрээр Хайсаны 2-р хүү юм.
14.Ринчинбал хаан 1325 оны улаан бар жил төрж 1332 оны хар бичин жил таалал төгсчээ. Тэрээр Хүслэн хааны хүү бөгөөд ердөө 2 сар хаан ор сууж 7 насандаа нас нөгчсөн дэндүү эмгэнэлтэй.
15.Тогоонтөмөр хаан 1320 оны цагаан бичин жил төрж 1370 оны цагаан нохой жил таалал төгссөн. 1333 оны харагчин тахиа жил хаан ор суужээ. Хаан 50 насалжээ. Тэрээр Ринчинбалын ах юм.
16.Аюуширдэр билэгт хаан 1338 оны шар барс жил төрж 1378 оны шар морин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1370 оны цагаан нохой жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 40 насалжээ. Тэрээр Тогоонтөмөр хааны ахмад хүү юм.
17.Төгстөмөр хаан 1342 оны хар морин жил төрж 1388 оны шар луу жил таалал төгсчээ. 1378 оны шар морин жил хаан ор суусан хаан 46 насалжээ. Тэрээр Аюурширдэр хааны дүү юм.
18.Энхзоригт хаан 1359 оны шаргачин гахай жил төрж 1392 оны хар бичин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1389 оны шаргачин могой жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 33 насалжээ. Тэрээр Төгстөмөр хааны ахмад хүү юм.
19.Элбэг нигүүлсэгч хаан 1361 оны цагаагчин үхэр жил төрж 1399 оны шаргачин туулай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1393 оны харагчин тахиа жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 38 насалжээ. Тэрээр Энхзоригт хааны хүү юм.
20. Гүнтөмөр хаан 1377 оны улаагчин могой жил төрж 1402 оны хар морин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1400 оны шар морин жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 25 насалжээ. Тэрээр элбэг нигүүлсэгч хааны ахмад хүү юм.
21.Үгчхашхаа хаан Энэ хүний намтар тодорхойгvй. Тэрээр 1403 оны харагчин хонин жил хаан ширээг булаан авч 1408 оны хар хулгана жил алагдсан байх юм.
22. Өлзийтөмөр хаан 1378 оны шар морин жил төрж 1411 онд таалал төгсчээ. 1408 оны шар хулгана жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 33 насалжээ. Тэрээр Гүнтөмөр хааны дүү юм.
23. Дэлбэг хаан 1395 оны хөхөгчин гахай жил төрж 1415 оны цагаан туулай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1411 оны шар хулгана жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 20 насалсан. Тэрээр Өлзийтөмөр хааны хүү юм.
24. Адай хаан 1400 оны цагаан луу жил төрж 1438 оны шар морин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1426 оны шар морин жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 38 насалжээ. Тэрээр Хархуцаг гэгчийн хүү байжээ.
25. Тайсун хаан Түүнийг мөн Тогтохбух гэдэг. 1422 оны хар барс жил төрж 1452 оны хар бичин жил таалал төгсчээ 1439 оны шарагчин хонин жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 30 насалжээ. Тэрээр Адай хааны хүү юм.
26. Агваржин жонон хаан 1423 оны хар бичин жил төржээ. Өөрөөр хэлбэл 1452 онд хаан ор суусан ч тэр ондоо алагдсан байна. Хаан 29 насалжээ. Тэрээр Тайсун хааны дүү юм.
27. Эсэнтайш хаан 1407 оны улаагчин гахай жил төрж 1455 оны хөхөгчин гахай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1452 оны хар бичин жил хаан ор суусан ба 48 насалжээ. Тэрээр Тайсун хааны ерөнхий сайд асан Ойродын Тогоонтайшийн хүү бөгөөд 15-р зууны дундуур Ойрод Монголыг нэгтгэн 1452 онд бүх монголын хаан болсон юм.
28. Маркус Үхэгт хаан 1446 оны улаан барс жил төрж 1456 оны улаан хулгана жил таалал төгсчээ. 1455 оны хөхөгчин гахай жил хаан ор суусан ба хаан 10 хан насыг насалжээ. Тэрээр Тайсун хааны 2-р хүү юм.
29. Молон хаан 1437 оны улаагчин могой жил төрж 1462 оны хар морин жил таалал төгсчээ 1456 оны улаан хулгана жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 25 насалсан. Маркус хааны ах байлаа.
30. Мандуул хаан 1426 оны улаан морин жил төрж 1467 оны улаагчин гахай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1463 оны харагчин хонин жил хаан ор суусан ба 41 насалжээ. Тэрээр Адай хааны 2-р хүү юм.
31. Батмөнх даян хаан 1464 оны хөх бичин жил төрж 1517 оны улаачин үхэр жил 53 насандаа таалал төгсчээ. 1470 оны цагаан барс жил хаан ширээнд суусан. Хаан 53 насалжээ. Тэрээр Мандуул хааны дүү Баянмөнх жононгийн хүү юм. Түүхнээ хамгийн олон жил хаан ширээнд суусан бөгөөд дэлхийд "үхэр тэрэгт” хаан гэж алдаршсан.
32. Барсболд хаан(Сайналаг хаан) 1488 оны шар бичин жил төрж 1519 оны шаргачин туулай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1517 оны улаагчин үхэр жил хаан суусан ба 31 насалсан. Батмөнх даян хааны 2-р хүү юм.
33. Бодь-Алаг хаан 1505 оны хөхөгчин үхэр жил төрж 1547 оны улаагчин хонин жил таалал төгсчээ. 1520 оны цагаан луу жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 42 насалжээ. Тэрээр Батмөнх даян хааны хүү Төрболдын ууган хүү юм.
34. Дарайсунгүдэн хаан 1520 оны цагаан луу жил төрж 1557 оны улаагчин могоой жил таалал төгсчээ. 1548 оны шар бичин жил хаан ор суусан. Хаан 37 насалжээ. Бодь-Алаг хааны ахмад хүү юм.
35. Түмэнзасагт хаан 1539 оны шарагчин гахай жил төрж 1592 оны хар луу жил таалал төгсчээ. 1558 оны шар морин жил хаан ор суусан ба 53 насалжээ. Тэрээр Дарайсун хааны отгон хүү юм.
36. Буянцэцэн хаан 1555 оны хөхөгчин туулай жил төрж 1603 оны харагчин туулай жил таалал төгсчээ. 1593 оны харагчин могой жил хаан ор суусан ба Түмэнзасагт хааны ахмад хүү юм.
37. Лигдэн хутагт хаан 1592 оны хар луу жил төрж 1634 оны хөх нохой жил таалал төгсчээ. 1604 оны харагчин туулай жил хаан ор суусан ба 42 насалжээ. Тэрээр Буян цэцэн хааны хүү юм.
نوستالژیک تی وی سکانس درگیری شعبان استخوانی و جاهلان محل در سریال ارزشمند و بسیار زیبای هزاردستان ۱۳۶۶ علی حاتمی 16 قسمت تماشا+دانلود nostalgik-tv.com/?p=6181
هزاردستان اثری از علی حاتمی است که در سال ۱۳۵۸ به صورت مجموعهٔ تلویزیونی برای تلویزیون ایران ساخته شد. پروژهٔ هزاردستان بعد از ۸ سال تمام شد. طرح اولیه این فیلم در سال ۵۴ با عنوان «جادهٔ ابریشم» و با حضور شخصیتهایی مثل مدرس، میرزا کوچک و رضاخان به ذهن حاتمی آمدو بعد از تغییرات اساسی که ماهیت کار را عوض کرد. ماندگارترین تأثیر هزاردستان در تاریخ سینمای ایران، ساخته شدن شهرک سینمایی غزالی است. شهرکی که به گفتهٔ خود علی حاتمی، زمان شروعش جوان بوده و وقتی تمام شده پیرمردی از شهرک بیرون آمدهاست. در این شهرک محلههای اصلی و قدیمی تهران با زیربنای ۷ هزار متر مربع ساخته شده و ۳۰ هزار متر مربع به خیابان لاله زار و میدان توپخانه اختصاص یافته است؛ آن هم به گونهای که نمای بیرونی ساختمانها قابل جابجا شدن باشد و بتوان هر عمارت را به بنایی دیگر تبدیل کرد. محیط بازیگری این سریال در محیطی بازسازیشده از تهران قدیم است. فیلم در دو بخش اصلی تشکیل شدهاست، بخش اول که به داستان رضا تفنگچی میباشد، که دوران احمدشاه و آغاز حکومت رضا شاه و بخش دوم در مورد زندگی رضا خوشنویس است که در دوران پایانی حکومت رضا شاه و آغاز حکومت محمدرضا شاه میباشد. بازی جمشید مشایخی یکی از درخشانترین بازیهای وی میباشد. پس از مرگ حاتمی، دو فیلم سینمایی با تدوین واروژ کریممسیحی بر اساس هزاردستان ساخته شد. این دو فیلم کمیتهٔ مجازات و طهران، روزگار نو نام دارند. یکی از نکات قوت این مجموعه موسیقی متن آن میباشد، تیتراژ اولیه فیلم، پیش درآمدی در آواز اصفهان ساختهٔ مرتضی نیداوود (سازنده تصنیف مرغ سحر) با تنظیم برای ارکستر از مرتضی حنانه است. گفتگوهای این سریال مانند دیگر آثار شادروان حاتمی در استودیوی دوبلاژ پالوده و شنیدنی شد. حاتمی کار را به استاد علی کسمایی داد که متخصص فیلمهای پرشخصیت و همچنین دارای نثر فاخر بود. گویندگان سریال هم جملگی از بهترین گویندگان تاریخ دوبله بودند. چه آنهایی که نقشهای اول را گفتند و چه مکمل گوها و…
منوچهر اسماعیلی (بجای عزت الله انتظامی، جمشید مشایخی، محمدعلی کشاورز و جمشید لایق) ناصر طهماسب (بجای علی نصیریان، اسماعیل محمدی، جهانگیر فروهر و نعمت الله گرجی) ایرج ناظریان (بجای داود رشیدی) عزت الله مقبلی (بجای جعفر والی و جهانگیر فروهر در نقشی دیگر) بههمراه بهرام زند، احمد رسولزاده، ژرژ پطرسی، حسین عرفانی، مهدی آریننژاد، جواد پزشکیان، حسین حاتمی، اصغر افضلی، عطا الله کاملی، منوچهر نوذری، بدری نورالهی، مهین کسمایی، خسرو خسروشاهی، جلال مقامی و…
خلاصه داستان: در اوایل سلطنت رضا شاه، رضا خوشنویسی است که گذشته پرماجرایی را از سر گذرانده است. او به دور از هیاهو و جنجالهای سیاسی تهران، به همراه همسرش قمربانو در مشهد زندگی میکند؛ تا آنکه حضور یک مفتش زندگی آرامشان را بر هم زده و با دستگیری رضا و تهدید و ارعاب و شکنجهاش، از او میخواهد تا به جرمی نامشخص اعتراف کند…
بازیگران: جمشید مشایخی, عزت الله انتظامی, داوود رشیدی, علی نصیریان, محمد علی کشاورز, حسین گیل, زری خوشکام, شهلا میربختیار, افسر اسدی, جهانگیر الماسی, محمد مطیع, اصغر همت, سروش خلیلی, جهانگیر فروهر, جمشید لایق, منوچهر آذری, فرهنگ مهرپرور
برای اولین بار این سریال زیبا با کیفیت عالی در ۱۶ قسمت تقدیم هموطنان عزیز میشود. ... See MoreSee Less